Neal Benowitz, MD

Professor Emeritus
Medicine
+1 628 206-8324

Neal Benowitz has been conducting research at SFGH since 1973. His research focus is on the human pharmacology of nicotine in relation to pathogenesis of and individual differences in vulnerability to tobacco-related disease, and the use of pharmacologic data as a basis for public health policies to prevent and reduce such disease. He has served on a number of national and international committees addressing issues in tobacco-related diseases and smoking cessation, including several sponsored by the Institute of Medicine. He has authored over 500 publications, including a state-of-the-art review on nicotine addiction in the New England Journal of Medicine in June 2010.

Publications: 

Recruitment best practices of a cardiovascular risk reduction randomised control trial in rural Alaska Native communities.

International journal of circumpolar health

Knox M, Skan J, Benowitz NL, Schnellbaecher M, Prochaska JJ

Relations among cigarette dependence, e-cigarette dependence, and key dependence criteria among dual users of combustible and e-cigarettes.

Psychology of addictive behaviors : journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors

Piper ME, Baker TB, Mermelstein R, Benowitz N, Jorenby DE

A Mobile Health Intervention for Adolescents Exposed to Secondhand Smoke: Pilot Feasibility and Efficacy Study.

JMIR formative research

Nardone N, Giberson J, Prochaska JJ, Jain S, Benowitz NL

Biomarkers of Exposure to Nicotine and Tobacco-specific Nitrosamines in Adolescent Blunt Users.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Nardone N, Jain S, Benowitz NL

Effects of Nicotine Metabolic Rate on Cigarette Reinforcement.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Liakoni E, Nardone N, St Helen G, Dempsey DA, Tyndale RF, Benowitz NL

Relationships between race, gender, and spot urine levels of biomarkers of tobacco exposure vary based on how creatinine is handled in analyses.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Carroll DM, Cigan S, Ikuemonisan J, Hammonds T, Stepanov I, St Helen G, Benowitz N, Hatsukami DK

Cigarette Smoking and ARDS After Blunt Trauma: The Influence of Changing Smoking Patterns and Resuscitation Practices.

Chest

Moazed F, Hendrickson C, Conroy A, Kornblith LZ, Benowitz NL, Delucchi K, Cohen MJ, Calfee CS

Cultural and demographic correlates of dual tobacco use in a sample of Alaska Native adults who smoke cigarettes.

Tobacco induced diseases

Epperson AE, Crouch M, Skan J, Benowitz NL, Schnellbaecher M, Prochaska JJ

Biochemical Verification of Tobacco Use and Abstinence: 2019 Update.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Benowitz NL, Bernert JT, Foulds J, Hecht SS, Jacob P, Jarvis MJ, Joseph A, Oncken C, Piper ME

Biomarkers of Exposure for Dual Use of Electronic Cigarettes and Combustible Cigarettes: Nicotelline, NNAL, and Total Nicotine Equivalents.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Jacob P, St Helen G, Yu L, Nardone N, Havel C, Cheung P, Benowitz NL

Characterization of Nicotine Salts in 23 Electronic Cigarette Refill Liquids.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Harvanko AM, Havel CM, Jacob P, Benowitz NL

Development and Piloting Testing of An Experimental Tobacco and Nicotine Product Marketplace.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Carroll DM, Strayer L, Nardone N, Pacek LR, Kozink RV, Tessier K, McClernon J, Benowitz N, Bickel WK, Hatsukami D

Changes in Use Patterns OVER ONE YEAR Among Smokers and Dual Users of Combustible and electronic cigarettes.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Piper ME, Baker TB, Benowitz NL, Jorenby DE

E-cigarette Dependence Measures in Dual Users: Reliability and Relations with Dependence Criteria and E-Cigarette Cessation.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Piper ME, Baker TB, Benowitz NL, Smith SS, Jorenby DE

Evaluation of nicotine patch adherence measurement using self-report and saliva cotinine among abstainers in a smoking cessation trial.

Drug and alcohol dependence

Schnoll R, Paul Wileyto E, Gross R, Hitsman B, Hawk LW, Cinciripini P, George TP, Benowitz NL, Fen Lubitz S, Ashare R, Tyndale RF, Lerman C

Peripheral Blood Flow Changes to Cutaneous and Muscular Beds in Response to Acute Hookah Smoking.

The American journal of cardiology

Rezk-Hanna M, Nelson MD, Rader F, Benowitz NL, Rosenberry R, Chang LC, Li N, Tashkin DP, Elashoff RM, Victor RG

Comprehensive Parent-Metabolite PBPK/PD Modeling Insights into Nicotine Replacement Therapy Strategies.

Clinical pharmacokinetics

Kovar L, Selzer D, Britz H, Benowitz N, St Helen G, Kohl Y, Bals R, Lehr T

Mouth-Level Nicotine Intake Estimates from Discarded Filter Butts to Examine Compensatory Smoking in Low Nicotine Cigarettes.

Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology

Smith TT, Koopmeiners JS, Hatsukami DK, Tessier KM, Benowitz NL, Murphy SE, Strasser AA, Tidey JW, Blount BC, Valentin L, Bravo Cardenas R, Watson C, Pirkle JL, Donny EC

The Impact of Exclusive Use of Very Low Nicotine Cigarettes on Compensatory Smoking: An Inpatient Crossover Clinical Trial.

Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology

Smith TT, Koopmeiners JS, White CM, Denlinger-Apte RL, Pacek LR, De Jesús VR, Wang L, Watson C, Blount BC, Hatsukami DK, Benowitz NL, Donny EC, Carpenter MJ

Relationships between the nicotine metabolite ratio and a panel of exposure and effect biomarkers: findings from two studies of U.S. commercial cigarette smokers.

Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology

Carroll DM, Murphy SE, Benowitz NL, Strasser AA, Kotlyar M, Carmella SG, McClernon FJ, Pacek LR, Dermody SS, Vandrey RG, Donny EC, Hatsukami DK

Twenty-four Hour Subjective and Pharmacological Effects of Ad Libitum Electronic and Combustible Cigarette Use among Dual Users.

Addiction (Abingdon, England)

Harvanko AM, St Helen G, Nardone N, Addo N, Benowitz NL

Urine Metabolites for Estimating Daily Intake of Nicotine from Cigarette Smoking.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Benowitz NL, Helen GS, Nardone N, Cox LS, Jacob P

Differences in nicotine intake and effects from electronic and combustible cigarettes among dual users.

Addiction (Abingdon, England)

St Helen G, Nardone N, Addo N, Dempsey D, Havel C, Jacob P, Benowitz N

Seizures After Vaping Nicotine in Youth: A Canary or a Red Herring?

The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine

Benowitz NL

Effects of Very Low Nicotine Content Cigarettes on Smoking Behavior and Biomarkers of Exposure in Menthol and Non-menthol Smokers.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Denlinger-Apte RL, Kotlyar M, Koopmeiners JS, Tidey JW, Luo X, Benowitz NL, Jensen JA, Ikuemonisan JO, Pacek LR, Smith TT, Vandrey R, Donny EC, Hatsukami DK

The Role of Compensation in Nicotine Reduction.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Benowitz NL, Donny EC, Edwards KC, Hatsukami D, Smith TT

Sources and Biomarkers of Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Urban Adolescents.

Academic pediatrics

Nardone N, Jain S, Addo N, St Helen G, Jacob P, Benowitz NL

The influence of nicotine metabolic rate on working memory over 6 hours of abstinence from nicotine.

Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behavior

Nardone N, Shahid M, Strasser AA, Dempsey DA, Benowitz NL

Effect of e-cigarette flavors on nicotine delivery and puffing topography: results from a randomized clinical trial of daily smokers.

Psychopharmacology

Voos N, Smith D, Kaiser L, Mahoney MC, Bradizza CM, Kozlowski LT, Benowitz NL, O'Connor RJ, Goniewicz ML

Impact of Early Nausea on Varenicline Adherence and Smoking Cessation.

Addiction (Abingdon, England)

Peng AR, Swardfager W, Benowitz NL, Ahluwalia JS, Lerman C, Nollen NL, Tyndale RF

Corrigendum to: Changes in Use Patterns Over 1 Year Among Smokers and Dual Users of Combustible and Electronic Cigarettes.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Piper ME, Baker TB, Benowitz NL, Jorenby DE

Factors that Explain Differences in Abstinence between Black and White Smokers: A Prospective Intervention Study.

Journal of the National Cancer Institute

Nollen NL, Mayo MS, Cox LS, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF, Ellerbeck EF, Scheuermann TS, Ahluwalia JS

E-Hookah Versus E-Cigarettes: Findings From Wave 2 of the PATH Study (2014-2015).

American journal of preventive medicine

Rezk-Hanna M, Toyama J, Ikharo E, Brecht ML, Benowitz NL

Comparison of systemic exposure to toxic and/or carcinogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during vaping, smoking, and abstention.

Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia, Pa.)

St Helen G, Liakoni E, Nardone N, Addo N, Jacob P, Benowitz NL

Quantitative biochemical screening for marijuana use and concordance with tobacco use in urban adolescents.

Drug and alcohol dependence

Benowitz N, Nardone N, St Helen G, Addo N, Jacob P, Liakoni E, Jain S, Hooshfar S, Lynch K

Reductions in urinary metabolites of exposure to household air pollution in pregnant, rural Guatemalan women provided liquefied petroleum gas stoves.

Journal of exposure science & environmental epidemiology

Weinstein JR, Diaz-Artiga A, Benowitz N, Thompson LM

Relationship between skin melanin index and nicotine pharmacokinetics in African American smokers.

Drug and alcohol dependence

Liakoni E, St Helen G, Dempsey DA, Jacob P, Tyndale RF, Benowitz NL

Exposure to a Tobacco-Specific Carcinogen Among Adolescent Smokeless Tobacco Users in Rural California, United States.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Chaffee BW, Jacob P, Couch ET, Benowitz NL

Cardiovascular Effects of Hookah Smoking: Potential Implications for Cardiovascular Risk.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Rezk-Hanna M, Benowitz NL

Dual Users Compared to Smokers: Demographics, Dependence, and Biomarkers.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Piper ME, Baker TB, Benowitz NL, Kobinsky K, Jorenby DE

Differences in exposure to toxic and/or carcinogenic volatile organic compounds between Black and White cigarette smokers.

Journal of exposure science & environmental epidemiology

St Helen G, Benowitz NL, Ko J, Jacob P, Gregorich SE, Pérez-Stable EJ, Murphy SE, Hecht SS, Hatsukami DK, Donny EC

JUUL electronic cigarettes: Nicotine exposure and the user experience.

Drug and alcohol dependence

Nardone N, Helen GS, Addo N, Meighan S, Benowitz NL

Effects of immediate versus gradual nicotine reduction in cigarettes on biomarkers of biological effects.

Addiction (Abingdon, England)

Hatsukami DK, Luo X, Heskin AK, Tang MK, Carmella SG, Jensen J, Robinson JD, Vandrey R, Drobes DJ, Strasser AA, al'Absi M, Leischow S, Cinciripini PM, Koopmeiners J, Ikuemonisan J, Benowitz NL, Donny EC, Hecht SS

Black Light Smokers: How Nicotine Intake and Carcinogen Exposure Differ Across Various Biobehavioral Factors.

Journal of the National Medical Association

St Helen G, Benowitz NL, Ahluwalia JS, Tyndale RF, Addo N, Gregorich SE, Pérez-Stable EJ, Cox LS

High Carbon Monoxide Levels from Charcoal Combustion Mask Acute Endothelial Dysfunction Induced by Hookah (Waterpipe) Smoking in Young Adults.

Circulation

Rezk-Hanna M, Mosenifar Z, Benowitz NL, Rader F, Rashid M, Davoren K, Moy NB, Doering L, Robbins W, Sarna L, Li N, Chang LC, Elashoff RM, Victor RG

Longitudinal stability in cigarette smokers of urinary eicosanoid biomarkers of oxidative damage and inflammation.

PloS one

Carmella SG, Heskin AK, Tang MK, Jensen J, Luo X, Le CT, Murphy SE, Benowitz NL, McClernon FJ, Vandrey R, Allen SS, Denlinger-Apte R, Cinciripini PM, Strasser AA, al'Absi M, Robinson JD, Donny EC, Hatsukami DK, Hecht SS

RANDOMIZED WITHIN-SUBJECT TRIAL TO EVALUATE SMOKERS' INITIAL PERCEPTIONS, SUBJECTIVE EFFECTS, AND NICOTINE DELIVERY ACROSS SIX VAPORIZED NICOTINE PRODUCTS.

Addiction (Abingdon, England)

Voos N, Kaiser L, Mahoney MC, Bradizza CM, Kozlowski LT, Benowitz NL, O'Connor RJ, Goniewicz ML

Predictors of Neuropsychiatric Adverse Events with Smoking Cessation Medications in the Randomized Controlled EAGLES Trial.

Journal of general internal medicine

Anthenelli RM, Gaffney M, Benowitz NL, West R, McRae T, Russ C, Lawrence D, St Aubin L, Krishen A, Evins AE

Neuropsychiatric Safety and Efficacy of Varenicline, Bupropion, and Nicotine Patch in Smokers With Psychotic, Anxiety, and Mood Disorders in the EAGLES Trial.

Journal of clinical psychopharmacology

Evins AE, Benowitz NL, West R, Russ C, McRae T, Lawrence D, Krishen A, St Aubin L, Maravic MC, Anthenelli RM

Vascular Aging is Accelerated in Flight Attendants with Occupational Secondhand Smoke Exposure.

Journal of occupational and environmental medicine

Wei J, Shufelt C, Oestreicher Stock E, Mills C, Dhawan S, Jacob R, Torbati T, Cook-Wiens G, Benowitz N, Jacob P, Ganz P, Bairey Merz CN, Redberg R

Evaluation of a weighted genetic risk score for the prediction of biomarkers of CYP2A6 activity.

Addiction biology

El-Boraie A, Taghavi T, Chenoweth MJ, Fukunaga K, Mushiroda T, Kubo M, Lerman C, Nollen NL, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF

Loperamide associated torsades de pointes, in the setting of complete heart block at marginally supratherapeutic dosing (20mg/day).

Clinical toxicology (Philadelphia, Pa.)

Goodnough R, Nomura M, Badea A, Lynch KL, Benowitz NL, Tsutaoka B

Butanediol conversion to gamma-hydroxybutyrate markedly reduced by the alcohol dehydrogenase blocker fomepizole.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Liakoni E, Gugelmann H, Dempsey DA, Wiegand TJ, Havel C, Jacob P, Benowitz NL

Evaluating the temporal relationships between withdrawal symptoms and smoking relapse.

Psychology of addictive behaviors : journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors

Robinson JD, Li L, Chen M, Lerman C, Tyndale RF, Schnoll RA, Hawk LW, George TP, Benowitz NL, Cinciripini PM

Longitudinal stability in cigarette smokers of urinary biomarkers of exposure to the toxicants acrylonitrile and acrolein.

PloS one

Chen M, Carmella SG, Sipe C, Jensen J, Luo X, Le CT, Murphy SE, Benowitz NL, McClernon FJ, Vandrey R, Allen SS, Denlinger-Apte R, Cinciripini PM, Strasser AA, al'Absi M, Robinson JD, Donny EC, Hatsukami D, Hecht SS

Managing Cannabis Use in Patients With Cardiovascular Disease.

The Canadian journal of cardiology

Benowitz NL

Identification and quantification of electronic cigarette exhaled aerosol residue chemicals in field sites.

Environmental research

Khachatoorian C, Jacob P, Sen A, Zhu Y, Benowitz NL, Talbot P

Reprint of: Prevention and Treatment of Tobacco Use: JACC Health Promotion Series.

Journal of the American College of Cardiology

Kalkhoran S, Benowitz NL, Rigotti NA

2018 ACC Expert Consensus Decision Pathway on Tobacco Cessation Treatment: A Report of the American College of Cardiology Task Force on Clinical Expert Consensus Documents.

Journal of the American College of Cardiology

Barua RS, Rigotti NA, Benowitz NL, Cummings KM, Jazayeri MA, Morris PB, Ratchford EV, Sarna L, Stecker EC, Wiggins BS

Urine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3) pyridyl-1-butanol and cotinine in Alaska native postpartum women and neonates comparing smokers and smokeless tobacco users.

International journal of circumpolar health

Benowitz NL, Flanagan CA, Thomas TK, Koller KR, Wolfe AW, Renner CC, Hughes C, Decker PA, Hatsukami DK, Murphy NJ, Patten C

Effects of Nicotine Metabolic Rate on withdrawal symptoms and response to cigarette smoking following abstinence.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Liakoni E, Edwards KC, St Helen G, Nardone N, Dempsey DA, Tyndale RF, Benowitz NL

Biomarker feedback intervention for smoking cessation among Alaska Native pregnant women: Randomized pilot study.

Patient education and counseling

Patten CA, Koller KR, Flanagan CA, Hiratsuka VY, Hughes CA, Wolfe AW, Decker PA, Fruth K, Brockman TA, Korpela M, Gamez D, Bronars C, Murphy NJ, Hatsukami D, Benowitz NL, Thomas TK

Effect of ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) on driving as measured by a driving simulator.

Psychopharmacology

Liakoni E, Dempsey DA, Meyers M, Murphy NG, Fiorentino D, Havel C, Haller C, Benowitz NL

Effect of Immediate vs Gradual Reduction in Nicotine Content of Cigarettes on Biomarkers of Smoke Exposure: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA

Hatsukami DK, Luo X, Jensen JA, al'Absi M, Allen SS, Carmella SG, Chen M, Cinciripini PM, Denlinger-Apte R, Drobes DJ, Koopmeiners JS, Lane T, Le CT, Leischow S, Luo K, McClernon FJ, Murphy SE, Paiano V, Robinson JD, Severson H, Sipe C, Strasser AA, Strayer LG, Tang MK, Vandrey R, Hecht SS, Benowitz NL, Donny EC

IQOS: examination of Philip Morris International's claim of reduced exposure.

Tobacco control

St Helen G, Jacob Iii P, Nardone N, Benowitz NL

Prevention and Treatment of Tobacco Use: JACC Health Promotion Series.

Journal of the American College of Cardiology

Kalkhoran S, Benowitz NL, Rigotti NA

Another Article About E-Cigarettes: Why Should I Care?

Journal of the American Heart Association

Cummings KM, Morris PB, Benowitz NL

Stimulant drugs are associated with violent and penetrating trauma.

The American journal of emergency medicine

Armenian P, Effron Z, Garbi N, Dirks R, Benowitz NL, Gerona RR

Secondhand smoke exposure and asthma outcomes among African-American and Latino children with asthma.

Thorax

Neophytou AM, Oh SS, White MJ, Mak ACY, Hu D, Huntsman S, Eng C, Serebrisky D, Borrell LN, Farber HJ, Meade K, Davis A, Avila PC, Thyne SM, Rodríguez-Cintrón W, Rodríguez-Santana JR, Kumar R, Brigino-Buenaventura E, Sen S, Lenoir MA, Williams LK, Benowitz NL, Balmes JR, Eisen EA, Burchard EG

Response to "Rapid Nicotine Ratio and Successful Quitting: Acceptable Explanation" by the Authors of "Nicotine Metabolite Ratio (NMR) Prospectively Predicts Smoking Relapse: Longitudinal Findings from ITC Surveys in Five Countries".

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Fix BV, O'Connor RJ, Heckman BW, Benowitz N, Cummings MK, Fong GT, Thrasher JF

Collaborative Method Performance Study of the Measurement of Nicotine, its Metabolites, and Total Nicotine Equivalents in Human Urine.

Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology

Wang L, Bernert JT, Benowitz NL, Feng J, Jacob P, McGahee E, Caudill SP, Scherer G, Scherer M, Pluym N, Doig MV, Newland K, Murphy SE, Caron NJ, Sander LC, Shimizu M, Yamazaki H, Kim S, Langman LJ, Pritchett JS, Sniegoski LT, Li Y, Blount B, Pirkle JL

Impact of e-liquid flavors on e-cigarette vaping behavior.

Drug and alcohol dependence

St Helen G, Shahid M, Chu S, Benowitz NL

Cardiovascular Safety of Varenicline, Bupropion, and Nicotine Patch in Smokers: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA internal medicine

Benowitz NL, Pipe A, West R, Hays JT, Tonstad S, McRae T, Lawrence D, St Aubin L, Anthenelli RM

Factors associated with the efficacy of smoking cessation treatments and predictors of smoking abstinence in EAGLES.

Addiction (Abingdon, England)

West R, Evins AE, Benowitz NL, Russ C, McRae T, Lawrence D, St Aubin L, Krishen A, Maravic MC, Anthenelli RM

Whether to push or pull? Nicotine reduction and non-combusted alternatives - Two strategies for reducing smoking and improving public health.

Preventive medicine

Smith TT, Hatsukami DK, Benowitz NL, Colby SM, McClernon FJ, Strasser AA, Tidey JW, White CM, Donny EC

Adolescent Exposure to Toxic Volatile Organic Chemicals From E-Cigarettes.

Pediatrics

Rubinstein ML, Delucchi K, Benowitz NL, Ramo DE

Effects of reduced nicotine content cigarettes on individual withdrawal symptoms over time and during abstinence.

Experimental and clinical psychopharmacology

Dermody SS, McClernon FJ, Benowitz N, Luo X, Tidey JW, Smith TT, Vandrey R, Hatsukami D, Donny EC

Lung Microbiota is Related to Smoking Status and to Development of ARDS in Critically Ill Trauma Patients.

American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine

Panzer AR, Lynch SV, Langelier C, Christie JD, McCauley K, Nelson M, Cheung CK, Benowitz NL, Cohen MJ, Calfee CS

Short-term early exposure to thirdhand cigarette smoke increases lung cancer incidence in mice.

Clinical science (London, England : 1979)

Hang B, Wang Y, Huang Y, Wang P, Langley SA, Bi L, Sarker AH, Schick SF, Havel C, Jacob P, Benowitz N, Destaillats H, Tang X, Xia Y, Jen KY, Gundel LA, Mao JH, Snijders AM

Comparison of Urine 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3)Pyridyl-1-Butanol and Cotinine for Assessment of Active and Passive Smoke Exposure in Urban Adolescents.

Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology

Benowitz NL, Nardone N, Jain S, Dempsey DA, Addo N, St Helen G, Jacob P

Tobacco Consumption and Toxicant Exposure of Cigarette Smokers Using Electronic Cigarettes.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Pulvers K, Emami AS, Nollen NL, Romero DR, Strong DR, Benowitz NL, Ahluwalia JS

Cigarette Filter Ventilation and its Relationship to Increasing Rates of Lung Adenocarcinoma.

Journal of the National Cancer Institute

Song MA, Benowitz NL, Berman M, Brasky TM, Cummings KM, Hatsukami DK, Marian C, O'Connor R, Rees VW, Woroszylo C, Shields PG

Slower nicotine metabolism among postmenopausal Polish smokers.

Pharmacological reports : PR

Kosmider L, Delijewski M, Koszowski B, Sobczak A, Benowitz NL, Goniewicz ML

Genome-wide association study of a nicotine metabolism biomarker in African American smokers: impact of chromosome 19 genetic influences.

Addiction (Abingdon, England)

Chenoweth MJ, Ware JJ, Zhu AZX, Cole CB, Cox LS, Nollen N, Ahluwalia JS, Benowitz NL, Schnoll RA, Hawk LW, Cinciripini PM, George TP, Lerman C, Knight J, Tyndale RF

An Electronic Cigarette Vaping Machine for the Characterization of Aerosol Delivery and Composition.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Havel CM, Benowitz NL, Jacob P, St Helen G

Nicotine Metabolite Ratio (NMR) Prospectively Predicts Smoking Relapse: Longitudinal Findings From ITC Surveys in Five Countries.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Fix BV, O'Connor RJ, Benowitz N, Heckman BW, Cummings KM, Fong GT, Thrasher JF

Urine Cotinine Screening Detects Nearly Ubiquitous Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Urban Adolescents.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Benowitz NL, Jain S, Dempsey DA, Nardone N, Helen GS, Jacob P

Tobacco toxicant exposure in cigarette smokers who use or do not use other tobacco products.

Drug and alcohol dependence

Nollen NL, Mayo MS, Clark L, Cox LS, Khariwala SS, Pulvers K, Benowitz NL, Ahluwalia JS

Emissions from Electronic Cigarettes: Assessing Vapers' Intake of Toxic Compounds, Secondhand Exposures, and the Associated Health Impacts.

Environmental science & technology

Logue JM, Sleiman M, Montesinos VN, Russell ML, Litter MI, Benowitz NL, Gundel LA, Destaillats H

Urinary NNAL in hookah smokers and non-smokers after attending a hookah social event in a hookah lounge or a private home.

Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP

Kassem NOF, Kassem NO, Liles S, Jackson SR, Chatfield DA, Jacob P, Benowitz NL, Hovell MF

Measures and predictors of varenicline adherence in the treatment of nicotine dependence.

Addictive behaviors

Peng AR, Morales M, Wileyto EP, Hawk LW, Cinciripini P, George TP, Benowitz NL, Nollen NL, Lerman C, Tyndale RF, Schnoll R

Impact of e-liquid flavors on nicotine intake and pharmacology of e-cigarettes.

Drug and alcohol dependence

St Helen G, Dempsey DA, Havel CM, Jacob P, Benowitz NL

Nicotine biomarkers and rate of nicotine metabolism among cigarette smokers taking buprenorphine for opioid dependency.

Drug and alcohol dependence

Gubner NR, Guydish J, Humfleet GL, Benowitz NL, Hall SM

Biomarkers of exposure to new and emerging tobacco delivery products.

American journal of physiology. Lung cellular and molecular physiology

Schick SF, Blount BC, Jacob P, Saliba NA, Bernert JT, El Hellani A, Jatlow P, Pappas RS, Wang L, Foulds J, Ghosh A, Hecht SS, Gomez JC, Martin JR, Mesaros C, Srivastava S, St Helen G, Tarran R, Lorkiewicz PK, Blair IA, Kimmel HL, Doerschuk CM, Benowitz NL, Bhatnagar A

Cardiovascular effects of electronic cigarettes.

Nature reviews. Cardiology

Benowitz NL, Fraiman JB

Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds among recently pregnant rural Guatemalan women cooking and heating with solid fuels.

International journal of hygiene and environmental health

Weinstein JR, Asteria-Peñaloza R, Diaz-Artiga A, Davila G, Hammond SK, Ryde IT, Meyer JN, Benowitz N, Thompson LM

Early exposure to thirdhand cigarette smoke affects body mass and the development of immunity in mice.

Scientific reports

Hang B, Snijders AM, Huang Y, Schick SF, Wang P, Xia Y, Havel C, Jacob P, Benowitz N, Destaillats H, Gundel LA, Mao JH

Thirdhand Smoke: New Evidence, Challenges, and Future Directions.

Chemical research in toxicology

Jacob P, Benowitz NL, Destaillats H, Gundel L, Hang B, Martins-Green M, Matt GE, Quintana PJ, Samet JM, Schick SF, Talbot P, Aquilina NJ, Hovell MF, Mao JH, Whitehead TP

Severe Carisoprodol Withdrawal After a 14-Year Addiction and Acute Overdose.

The Journal of emergency medicine

Vo KT, Horng H, Smollin CG, Benowitz NL

Reducing nicotine exposure results in weight gain in smokers randomised to very low nicotine content cigarettes.

Tobacco control

Rupprecht LE, Koopmeiners JS, Dermody SS, Oliver JA, al'Absi M, Benowitz NL, Denlinger-Apte R, Drobes DJ, Hatsukami D, McClernon FJ, Pacek LR, Smith TT, Sved AF, Tidey J, Vandrey R, Donny EC

Perceived risks and reasons to smoke cigarettes during pregnancy among Alaska native women.

Ethnicity & health

Bronars C, Patten C, Koller K, Hatsukami D, Flanagan CA, Decker PA, Hanson A, Wolfe A, Hughes C, Benowitz N, Murphy NJ, Thomas T

Smoking Cessation, Version 1.2016, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology.

Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN

Shields PG, Herbst RS, Arenberg D, Benowitz NL, Bierut L, Luckart JB, Cinciripini P, Collins B, David S, Davis J, Hitsman B, Hyland A, Lang M, Leischow S, Park ER, Purcell WT, Selzle J, Silber A, Spencer S, Tanvetyanon T, Tiep B, Tindle HA, Tucker-Seeley R, Urbanic J, Hooper MW, Weksler B, Whitlock CW, Wood DE, Burns J, Scavone J

Nicotine Delivery and Vaping Behavior During ad Libitum E-cigarette Access.

Tobacco regulatory science

St Helen G, Ross KC, Dempsey DA, Havel CM, Jacob P, Benowitz NL

Nicotine Replacement, Topography, and Smoking Phenotypes of E-cigarettes.

Tobacco regulatory science

Strasser AA, Souprountchouk V, Kaufmann A, Blazekovic S, Leone F, Benowitz NL, Schnoll RA

Reduced nicotine content cigarettes, e-cigarettes and the cigarette end game.

Addiction (Abingdon, England)

Benowitz NL, Donny EC, Hatsukami DK

Exposure to Nicotine and Selected Toxicants in Cigarette Smokers Who Switched to Electronic Cigarettes: A Longitudinal Within-Subjects Observational Study.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Goniewicz ML, Gawron M, Smith DM, Peng M, Jacob P, Benowitz NL

Effects of 6-Week Use of Reduced-Nicotine Content Cigarettes in Smokers With and Without Elevated Depressive Symptoms.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Tidey JW, Pacek LR, Koopmeiners JS, Vandrey R, Nardone N, Drobes DJ, Benowitz NL, Dermody SS, Lemieux A, Denlinger RL, Cassidy R, al'Absi M, Hatsukami DK, Donny EC

Estimations and predictors of non-compliance in switchers to reduced nicotine content cigarettes.

Addiction (Abingdon, England)

Nardone N, Donny EC, Hatsukami DK, Koopmeiners JS, Murphy SE, Strasser AA, Tidey JW, Vandrey R, Benowitz NL

E-cigarette use results in suppression of immune and inflammatory-response genes in nasal epithelial cells similar to cigarette smoke.

American journal of physiology. Lung cellular and molecular physiology

Martin EM, Clapp PW, Rebuli ME, Pawlak EA, Glista-Baker E, Benowitz NL, Fry RC, Jaspers I

Fetal Exposure to Carcinogens With Tobacco Use in Pregnancy: Phase 1 MAW Study Findings.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Flanagan CA, Koller KR, Wolfe AW, Thomas TK, Benowitz NL, Renner CC, Hughes C, Hatsukami DK, Bronars C, Murphy NJ, Day G, Decker PA, Patten CA

Racial differences in the relationship between rate of nicotine metabolism and nicotine intake from cigarette smoking.

Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behavior

Ross KC, Gubner NR, Tyndale RF, Hawk LW, Lerman C, George TP, Cinciripini P, Schnoll RA, Benowitz NL

Genome-Wide Association of the Laboratory-Based Nicotine Metabolite Ratio in Three Ancestries.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Baurley JW, Edlund CK, Pardamean CI, Conti DV, Krasnow R, Javitz HS, Hops H, Swan GE, Benowitz NL, Bergen AW

Cessation of alcohol consumption decreases rate of nicotine metabolism in male alcohol-dependent smokers.

Drug and alcohol dependence

Gubner NR, Kozar-Konieczna A, Szoltysek-Boldys I, Slodczyk-Mankowska E, Goniewicz J, Sobczak A, Jacob P, Benowitz NL, Goniewicz ML

Nicotine and Anatabine Exposure from Very Low Nicotine Content Cigarettes.

Tobacco regulatory science

Denlinger RL, Smith TT, Murphy SE, Koopmeiners JS, Benowitz NL, Hatsukami DK, Pacek LR, Colino C, Cwalina SN, Donny EC

The Influence of Puff Characteristics, Nicotine Dependence, and Rate of Nicotine Metabolism on Daily Nicotine Exposure in African American Smokers.

Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology

Ross KC, Dempsey DA, St Helen G, Delucchi K, Benowitz NL

Acute Effect of Hookah Smoking on the Human Coronary Microcirculation.

The American journal of cardiology

Nelson MD, Rezk-Hanna M, Rader F, Mason OR, Tang X, Shidban S, Rosenberry R, Benowitz NL, Tashkin DP, Elashoff RM, Lindner JR, Victor RG

Cardiovascular toxicity of nicotine: Implications for electronic cigarette use.

Trends in cardiovascular medicine

Benowitz NL, Burbank AD

Minoxidil-Associated Pleuropericardial Effusion.

Journal of general internal medicine

Brondfield M, Wu L, Benowitz N

Thirdhand Smoke: State of the Science and a Call for Policy Expansion.

Public health reports (Washington, D.C. : 1974)

Northrup TF, Jacob P, Benowitz NL, Hoh E, Quintana PJ, Hovell MF, Matt GE, Stotts AL

A clinical trial to examine disparities in quitting between African-American and White adult smokers: Design, accrual, and baseline characteristics.

Contemporary clinical trials

Nollen NL, Cox LS, Yu Q, Ellerbeck EF, Scheuermann TS, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF, Mayo MS, Ahluwalia JS

Thirdhand smoke contamination in hospital settings: assessing exposure risk for vulnerable paediatric patients.

Tobacco control

Northrup TF, Khan AM, Jacob P, Benowitz NL, Hoh E, Hovell MF, Matt GE, Stotts AL

Nicotine delivery, retention and pharmacokinetics from various electronic cigarettes.

Addiction (Abingdon, England)

St Helen G, Havel C, Dempsey DA, Jacob P, Benowitz NL

Randomized Trial of Reduced-Nicotine Standards for Cigarettes.

The New England journal of medicine

Donny EC, Denlinger RL, Tidey JW, Koopmeiners JS, Benowitz NL, Vandrey RG, al'Absi M, Carmella SG, Cinciripini PM, Dermody SS, Drobes DJ, Hecht SS, Jensen J, Lane T, Le CT, McClernon FJ, Montoya ID, Murphy SE, Robinson JD, Stitzer ML, Strasser AA, Tindle H, Hatsukami DK

Cardiovascular Effects of Exposure to Cigarette Smoke and Electronic Cigarettes: Clinical Perspectives From the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease Section Leadership Council and Early Career Councils of the American College of Cardiology.

Journal of the American College of Cardiology

Morris PB, Ference BA, Jahangir E, Feldman DN, Ryan JJ, Bahrami H, El-Chami MF, Bhakta S, Winchester DE, Al-Mallah MH, Sanchez Shields M, Deedwania P, Mehta LS, Phan BA, Benowitz NL

Cigarette Smoke Exposure and the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

Critical care medicine

Calfee CS, Matthay MA, Kangelaris KN, Siew ED, Janz DR, Bernard GR, May AK, Jacob P, Havel C, Benowitz NL, Ware LB

Smoking cessation and the cardiovascular patient.

Current opinion in cardiology

Prochaska JJ, Benowitz NL

The Past, Present, and Future of Nicotine Addiction Therapy.

Annual review of medicine

Prochaska JJ, Benowitz NL

Effect of reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes on cigarette smoking behavior and tobacco smoke toxicant exposure: 2-year follow up.

Addiction (Abingdon, England)

Benowitz NL, Nardone N, Dains KM, Hall SM, Stewart S, Dempsey D, Jacob P

Drug Metabolizing Enzyme and Transporter Gene Variation, Nicotine Metabolism, Prospective Abstinence, and Cigarette Consumption.

PloS one

Bergen AW, Michel M, Nishita D, Krasnow R, Javitz HS, Conneely KN, Lessov-Schlaggar CN, Hops H, Zhu AZ, Baurley JW, McClure JB, Hall SM, Baker TB, Conti DV, Benowitz NL, Lerman C, Tyndale RF, Swan GE

Lack of Associations of CHRNA5-A3-B4 Genetic Variants with Smoking Cessation Treatment Outcomes in Caucasian Smokers despite Associations with Baseline Smoking.

PloS one

Tyndale RF, Zhu AZ, George TP, Cinciripini P, Hawk LW, Schnoll RA, Swan GE, Benowitz NL, Heitjan DF, Lerman C

Nicotine metabolite ratio (3-hydroxycotinine/cotinine) in plasma and urine by different analytical methods and laboratories: implications for clinical implementation.

Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology

Tanner JA, Novalen M, Jatlow P, Huestis MA, Murphy SE, Kaprio J, Kankaanpää A, Galanti L, Stefan C, George TP, Benowitz NL, Lerman C, Tyndale RF

Nicotine Metabolite Ratio Is Associated With Lozenge Use But Not Quitting in Smokeless Tobacco Users.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Ebbert JO, Severson HH, Danaher BG, Benowitz NL, Schroeder DR

Genetic and phenotypic variation in UGT2B17, a testosterone-metabolizing enzyme, is associated with BMI in males.

Pharmacogenetics and genomics

Zhu AZ, Cox LS, Ahluwalia JS, Renner CC, Hatsukami DK, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF

Guidance to employers on integrating e-cigarettes/electronic nicotine delivery systems into tobacco worksite policy.

Journal of occupational and environmental medicine

Whitsel LP, Benowitz N, Bhatnagar A, Bullen C, Goldstein F, Matthias-Gray L, Grossmeier J, Harris J, Isaac F, Loeppke R, Manley M, Moseley K, Niemiec T, O'Brien V, Palma-Davis L, Pronk N, Pshock J, Stave GM, Terry P

Use of the nicotine metabolite ratio as a genetically informed biomarker of response to nicotine patch or varenicline for smoking cessation: a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

The Lancet. Respiratory medicine

Lerman C, Schnoll RA, Hawk LW, Cinciripini P, George TP, Wileyto EP, Swan GE, Benowitz NL, Heitjan DF, Tyndale RF

Nicotine Dependence, Nicotine Metabolism, and the Extent of Compensation in Response to Reduced Nicotine Content Cigarettes.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Bandiera FC, Ross KC, Taghavi S, Delucchi K, Tyndale RF, Benowitz NL

Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure among hospitalized nonsmokers with coronary heart disease.

JAMA internal medicine

Japuntich SJ, Eilers MA, Shenhav S, Park ER, Winickoff JP, Benowitz NL, Rigotti NA

Different profiles of carcinogen exposure in Chinese compared with US cigarette smokers.

Tobacco control

Benowitz NL, Gan Q, Goniewicz ML, Lu W, Xu J, Li X, Jacob P, Glantz S

Compensatory smoking from gradual and immediate reduction in cigarette nicotine content.

Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology

Hatsukami DK, Donny EC, Koopmeiners JS, Benowitz NL

Biochemical estimation of noncompliance with smoking of very low nicotine content cigarettes.

Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology

Benowitz NL, Nardone N, Hatsukami DK, Donny EC

Intake of toxic and carcinogenic volatile organic compounds from secondhand smoke in motor vehicles.

Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology

St Helen G, Jacob P, Peng M, Dempsey DA, Hammond SK, Benowitz NL

Cardiogenic shock after use of fluoroamphetamine confirmed with serum and urine levels.

Clinical toxicology (Philadelphia, Pa.)

Al-Abri S, Meier KH, Colby JM, Smollin CG, Benowitz NL

UGT1A and UGT2B genetic variation alters nicotine and nitrosamine glucuronidation in european and african american smokers.

Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology

Wassenaar CA, Conti DV, Das S, Chen P, Cook EH, Ratain MJ, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF

Gene variants in CYP2C19 are associated with altered in vivo bupropion pharmacokinetics but not bupropion-assisted smoking cessation outcomes.

Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals

Zhu AZ, Zhou Q, Cox LS, Ahluwalia JS, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF

Prevalence and impact of active and passive cigarette smoking in acute respiratory distress syndrome.

Critical care medicine

Hsieh SJ, Zhuo H, Benowitz NL, Thompson BT, Liu KD, Matthay MA, Calfee CS

Electronic cigarettes: a policy statement from the American Heart Association.

Circulation

Bhatnagar A, Whitsel LP, Ribisl KM, Bullen C, Chaloupka F, Piano MR, Robertson RM, McAuley T, Goff D, Benowitz N

Organic cation transporter variation and response to smoking cessation therapies.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Bergen AW, Javitz HS, Krasnow R, Michel M, Nishita D, Conti DV, Edlund CK, Kwok PY, McClure JB, Kim RB, Hall SM, Tyndale RF, Baker TB, Benowitz NL, Swan GE

Electronic cigarettes: review of use, content, safety, effects on smokers and potential for harm and benefit.

Addiction (Abingdon, England)

Hajek P, Etter JF, Benowitz N, Eissenberg T, McRobbie H

Reduced nicotine product standards for combustible tobacco: building an empirical basis for effective regulation.

Preventive medicine

Donny EC, Hatsukami DK, Benowitz NL, Sved AF, Tidey JW, Cassidy RN

Nicotine and carcinogen exposure after water pipe smoking in hookah bars.

Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology

St Helen G, Benowitz NL, Dains KM, Havel C, Peng M, Jacob P

E-cigarettes: a scientific review.

Circulation

Grana R, Benowitz N, Glantz SA

Electronic cigarettes. Cardiology patient page.

Circulation

Grana RA, Ling PM, Benowitz N, Glantz S

A comparison of nicotine biomarkers and smoking patterns in daily and nondaily smokers.

Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology

Shiffman S, Dunbar MS, Benowitz NL

Association of CHRNA5-A3-B4 SNP rs2036527 with smoking cessation therapy response in African-American smokers.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Zhu AZ, Zhou Q, Cox LS, David SP, Ahluwalia JS, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF

Children's exposure to secondhand and thirdhand smoke carcinogens and toxicants in homes of hookah smokers.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Kassem NO, Daffa RM, Liles S, Jackson SR, Kassem NO, Younis MA, Mehta S, Chen M, Jacob P, Carmella SG, Chatfield DA, Benowitz NL, Matt GE, Hecht SS, Hovell MF

Emerging nicotine delivery products. Implications for public health.

Annals of the American Thoracic Society

Benowitz NL

Novel CYP2A6 variants identified in African Americans are associated with slow nicotine metabolism in vitro and in vivo.

Pharmacogenetics and genomics

Piliguian M, Zhu AZ, Zhou Q, Benowitz NL, Ahluwalia JS, Sanderson Cox L, Tyndale RF

Cigarette smoke toxins deposited on surfaces: implications for human health.

PloS one

Martins-Green M, Adhami N, Frankos M, Valdez M, Goodwin B, Lyubovitsky J, Dhall S, Garcia M, Egiebor I, Martinez B, Green HW, Havel C, Yu L, Liles S, Matt G, Destaillats H, Sleiman M, Gundel LA, Benowitz N, Jacob P, Hovell M, Winickoff JP, Curras-Collazo M

Multiple risk-behavior profiles of smokers with serious mental illness and motivation for change.

Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association

Prochaska JJ, Fromont SC, Delucchi K, Young-Wolff KC, Benowitz NL, Hall S, Bonas T, Hall SM

Clinical significance of early smoking withdrawal effects and their relationships with nicotine metabolism: preliminary results from a pilot study.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Hendricks PS, Delucchi KL, Benowitz NL, Hall SM

Cotinine and tobacco-specific carcinogen exposure among nondaily smokers in a multiethnic sample.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Khariwala SS, Scheuermann TS, Berg CJ, Hayes RB, Nollen NL, Thomas JL, Guo H, Ahluwalia JS, Benowitz NL

Factors associated with discontinuation of bupropion and counseling among African American light smokers in a randomized clinical trial.

Annals of behavioral medicine : a publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine

Nollen NL, Mayo MS, Ahluwalia JS, Tyndale RF, Benowitz NL, Faseru B, Buchanan TS, Cox LS

Delayed bupropion cardiotoxicity associated with elevated serum concentrations of bupropion but not hydroxybupropion.

Clinical toxicology (Philadelphia, Pa.)

Al-Abri SA, Orengo JP, Hayashi S, Thoren KL, Benowitz NL, Olson KR

Nicotelline: a proposed biomarker and environmental tracer for particulate matter derived from tobacco smoke.

Chemical research in toxicology

Jacob P, Goniewicz ML, Havel CM, Schick SF, Benowitz NL

Levels of cotinine in dried blood specimens from newborns as a biomarker of maternal smoking close to the time of delivery.

American journal of epidemiology

Yang J, Pearl M, Jacob P, DeLorenze GN, Benowitz NL, Yu L, Havel C, Kharrazi M

Influence of a dopamine pathway additive genetic efficacy score on smoking cessation: results from two randomized clinical trials of bupropion.

Addiction (Abingdon, England)

David SP, Strong DR, Leventhal AM, Lancaster MA, McGeary JE, Munafò MR, Bergen AW, Swan GE, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF, Conti DV, Brown RA, Lerman C, Niaura R

Validity of self-reported adult secondhand smoke exposure.

Tobacco control

Prochaska JJ, Grossman W, Young-Wolff KC, Benowitz NL

Cytisine, the world's oldest smoking cessation aid.

BMJ (Clinical research ed.)

Prochaska JJ, Das S, Benowitz NL

Genetic and pharmacokinetic determinants of response to transdermal nicotine in white, black, and Asian nonsmokers.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Dempsey DA, St Helen G, Jacob P, Tyndale RF, Benowitz NL

CYP2A6 genotype but not age determines cotinine half-life in infants and children.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Dempsey DA, Sambol NC, Jacob P, Hoffmann E, Tyndale RF, Fuentes-Afflick E, Benowitz NL

Stability of the nicotine metabolite ratio in smokers of progressively reduced nicotine content cigarettes.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

St Helen G, Jacob P, Benowitz NL

Reducing the nicotine content to make cigarettes less addictive.

Tobacco control

Benowitz NL, Henningfield JE

Levels of selected carcinogens and toxicants in vapour from electronic cigarettes.

Tobacco control

Goniewicz ML, Knysak J, Gawron M, Kosmider L, Sobczak A, Kurek J, Prokopowicz A, Jablonska-Czapla M, Rosik-Dulewska C, Havel C, Jacob P, Benowitz N

Comparison of nicotine and carcinogen exposure with water pipe and cigarette smoking.

Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology

Jacob P, Abu Raddaha AH, Dempsey D, Havel C, Peng M, Yu L, Benowitz NL

Influence of CYP2B6 genetic variants on plasma and urine concentrations of bupropion and metabolites at steady state.

Pharmacogenetics and genomics

Benowitz NL, Zhu AZ, Tyndale RF, Dempsey D, Jacob P

Smoking cessation after acute myocardial infarction.

Journal of the American College of Cardiology

Benowitz NL, Prochaska JJ

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor variation and response to smoking cessation therapies.

Pharmacogenetics and genomics

Bergen AW, Javitz HS, Krasnow R, Nishita D, Michel M, Conti DV, Liu J, Lee W, Edlund CK, Hall S, Kwok PY, Benowitz NL, Baker TB, Tyndale RF, Lerman C, Swan GE

The ability of plasma cotinine to predict nicotine and carcinogen exposure is altered by differences in CYP2A6: the influence of genetics, race, and sex.

Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology

Zhu AZ, Renner CC, Hatsukami DK, Swan GE, Lerman C, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF

Biomarkers of secondhand smoke exposure in automobiles.

Tobacco control

Jones IA, St Helen G, Meyers MJ, Dempsey DA, Havel C, Jacob P, Northcross A, Hammond SK, Benowitz NL

Dose-independent kinetics with low level exposure to nicotine and cotinine.

British journal of clinical pharmacology

Benowitz NL, Dempsey D, Tyndale RF, St Helen G, Jacob P

Race, gender, and nicotine metabolism in adolescent smokers.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Rubinstein ML, Shiffman S, Rait MA, Benowitz NL

The DRD4 exon III VNTR, bupropion, and associations with prospective abstinence.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Bergen AW, Javitz HS, Su L, He Y, Conti DV, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF, Lerman C, Swan GE

Predictors of cessation in African American light smokers enrolled in a bupropion clinical trial.

Addictive behaviors

Faseru B, Nollen NL, Mayo MS, Krebill R, Choi WS, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF, Okuyemi KS, Ahluwalia JS, Sanderson Cox L

Particulate mass and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure from secondhand smoke in the back seat of a vehicle.

Tobacco control

Northcross AL, Trinh M, Kim J, Jones IA, Meyers MJ, Dempsey DD, Benowitz NL, Hammond SK

CYP2B6 and bupropion's smoking-cessation pharmacology: the role of hydroxybupropion.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Zhu AZ, Cox LS, Nollen N, Faseru B, Okuyemi KS, Ahluwalia JS, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF

Racial differences in the relationship between tobacco dependence and nicotine and carcinogen exposure.

Addiction (Abingdon, England)

St Helen G, Dempsey D, Wilson M, Jacob P, Benowitz NL

Nicotine reduction: strategic research plan.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Hatsukami DK, Benowitz NL, Donny E, Henningfield J, Zeller M

Correlates of NNAL levels among nondaily and daily smokers in the college student population.

Current biomarker findings

Berg CJ, Schauer GL, Ahluwalia JS, Benowitz NL

Nicotine metabolism and addiction among adolescent smokers.

Addiction (Abingdon, England)

Rubinstein ML, Shiffman S, Moscicki AB, Rait MA, Sen S, Benowitz NL

Tobacco use among southwestern Alaska Native people.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Renner CC, Lanier AP, Lindgren B, Jensen J, Patten CA, Parascandola M, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF, Hatsukami DK

Assessing secondhand smoke using biological markers.

Tobacco control

Avila-Tang E, Al-Delaimy WK, Ashley DL, Benowitz N, Bernert JT, Kim S, Samet JM, Hecht SS

Determination of tobacco smoke exposure by plasma cotinine levels in infants and children attending urban public hospital clinics.

Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine

Dempsey DA, Meyers MJ, Oh SS, Nguyen EA, Fuentes-Afflick E, Wu AH, Jacob P, Benowitz NL

Nicotine intake and smoking topography in smokers with bipolar disorder.

Bipolar disorders

Williams JM, Gandhi KK, Lu SE, Steinberg ML, Benowitz NL

Very low nicotine content cigarettes and potential consequences on cardiovascular disease.

Current cardiovascular risk reports

Joel DL, Denlinger RL, Dermody SS, Hatsukami DK, Benowitz NL, Donny EC

Population approaches to improve diet, physical activity, and smoking habits: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association.

Circulation

Mozaffarian D, Afshin A, Benowitz NL, Bittner V, Daniels SR, Franch HA, Jacobs DR, Kraus WE, Kris-Etherton PM, Krummel DA, Popkin BM, Whitsel LP, Zakai NA

DRD1 associations with smoking abstinence across slow and normal nicotine metabolizers.

Pharmacogenetics and genomics

Lee W, Ray R, Bergen AW, Swan GE, Thomas P, Tyndale RF, Benowitz NL, Lerman C, Conti DV

CYP2A6 and CYP2B6 genetic variation and its association with nicotine metabolism in South Western Alaska Native people.

Pharmacogenetics and genomics

Binnington MJ, Zhu AZ, Renner CC, Lanier AP, Hatsukami DK, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF

The exposure-dependent effects of aged secondhand smoke on endothelial function.

Journal of the American College of Cardiology

Frey PF, Ganz P, Hsue PY, Benowitz NL, Glantz SA, Balmes JR, Schick SF

High dose transdermal nicotine for fast metabolizers of nicotine: a proof of concept placebo-controlled trial.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Schnoll RA, Wileyto EP, Leone FT, Tyndale RF, Benowitz NL

Reproducibility of the nicotine metabolite ratio in cigarette smokers.

Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology

St Helen G, Novalen M, Heitjan DF, Dempsey D, Jacob P, Aziziyeh A, Wing VC, George TP, Tyndale RF, Benowitz NL

Exposure to nicotine and carcinogens among Southwestern Alaskan Native cigarette smokers and smokeless tobacco users.

Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology

Benowitz NL, Renner CC, Lanier AP, Tyndale RF, Hatsukami DK, Lindgren B, Stepanov I, Watson CH, Sosnoff CS, Jacob P

Exposure and kinetics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in cigarette smokers.

Chemical research in toxicology

St Helen G, Goniewicz ML, Dempsey D, Wilson M, Jacob P, Benowitz NL

Adherence to varenicline among African American smokers: an exploratory analysis comparing plasma concentration, pill count, and self-report.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Buchanan TS, Berg CJ, Cox LS, Nazir N, Benowitz NL, Yu L, Yturralde O, Jacob P, Choi WS, Ahluwalia JS, Nollen NL

Smoking behavior and exposure to tobacco toxicants during 6 months of smoking progressively reduced nicotine content cigarettes.

Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology

Benowitz NL, Dains KM, Hall SM, Stewart S, Wilson M, Dempsey D, Jacob P

Effects of menthol on the pharmacokinetics of bupropion among Black smokers.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Okuyemi KS, Faseru B, Reed GA, Cox LS, Bronars CA, Opole I, Whembolua GL, Mayo MS, Ahluwalia JS, Benowitz NL

Rapid smoking may not be aversive in schizophrenia.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Williams JM, Gandhi KK, Lu SE, Steinberg ML, Benowitz NL

Bupropion for smoking cessation in African American light smokers: a randomized controlled trial.

Journal of the National Cancer Institute

Cox LS, Nollen NL, Mayo MS, Choi WS, Faseru B, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF, Okuyemi KS, Ahluwalia JS

Gene-centric analysis of serum cotinine levels in African and European American populations.

Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology

Hamidovic A, Goodloe RJ, Bergen AW, Benowitz NL, Styn MA, Kasberger JL, Choquet H, Young TR, Meng Y, Palmer C, Pletcher M, Kertesz S, Hitsman B, Spring B, Jorgenson E

Cannabinoid-opioid interaction in chronic pain.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Abrams DI, Couey P, Shade SB, Kelly ME, Benowitz NL

Smoking cessation pharmacogenetics: analysis of varenicline and bupropion in placebo-controlled clinical trials.

Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology

King DP, Paciga S, Pickering E, Benowitz NL, Bierut LJ, Conti DV, Kaprio J, Lerman C, Park PW

Effect of nicotine on cytochrome P450 1A2 activity.

British journal of clinical pharmacology

Hukkanen J, Jacob P, Peng M, Dempsey D, Benowitz NL

Cardiology Rx for Change: improving clinical attention to tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure in cardiology.

Clinical cardiology

Prochaska JJ, Benowitz NL, Glantz SA, Hudmon KS, Grossman W

Nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carcinogen exposure after a single use of a water pipe.

Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology

Jacob P, Abu Raddaha AH, Dempsey D, Havel C, Peng M, Yu L, Benowitz NL

Sodium oxybate: updates and correction to previously published safety data.

Journal of clinical sleep medicine : JCSM : official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine

Wang YG, Swick TJ, Carter LP, Thorpy MJ, Benowitz NL

Smokeless tobacco as a nicotine delivery device: harm or harm reduction?

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Benowitz NL

Gender-stratified gene and gene-treatment interactions in smoking cessation.

The pharmacogenomics journal

Lee W, Bergen AW, Swan GE, Li D, Liu J, Thomas P, Tyndale RF, Benowitz NL, Lerman C, Conti DV

Cigarette smoking, nicotine, and body weight.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Audrain-McGovern J, Benowitz NL

Thirdhand tobacco smoke: emerging evidence and arguments for a multidisciplinary research agenda.

Environmental health perspectives

Matt GE, Quintana PJ, Destaillats H, Gundel LA, Sleiman M, Singer BC, Jacob P, Benowitz N, Winickoff JP, Rehan V, Talbot P, Schick S, Samet J, Wang Y, Hang B, Martins-Green M, Pankow JF, Hovell MF

Shorter interpuff interval is associated with higher nicotine intake in smokers with schizophrenia.

Drug and alcohol dependence

Williams JM, Gandhi KK, Lu SE, Kumar S, Steinberg ML, Cottler B, Benowitz NL

Racial differences in the relationship between number of cigarettes smoked and nicotine and carcinogen exposure.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Benowitz NL, Dains KM, Dempsey D, Wilson M, Jacob P

The threat of menthol cigarettes to U.S. public health.

The New England journal of medicine

Benowitz NL, Samet JM

Do biological differences help explain tobacco-related disparities?

American journal of health promotion : AJHP

Pérez-Stable EJ, Benowitz NL

Attitudes and practices of hookah smokers in the San Francisco Bay Area.

Journal of psychoactive drugs

Ahmed B, Jacob P, Allen F, Benowitz N

Genetic variability of smoking persistence in African Americans.

Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia, Pa.)

Hamidovic A, Kasberger JL, Young TR, Goodloe RJ, Redline S, Buxbaum SG, Benowitz NL, Bergen AW, Butler KR, Franceschini N, Gharib SA, Hitsman B, Levy D, Meng Y, Papanicolaou GJ, Preis SR, Spring B, Styn MA, Tong EK, White WB, Wiggins KL, Jorgenson E

Active and passive cigarette smoking and acute lung injury after severe blunt trauma.

American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine

Calfee CS, Matthay MA, Eisner MD, Benowitz N, Call M, Pittet JF, Cohen MJ

Association of the nicotine metabolite ratio and CHRNA5/CHRNA3 polymorphisms with smoking rate among treatment-seeking smokers.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Falcone M, Jepson C, Benowitz N, Bergen AW, Pinto A, Wileyto EP, Baldwin D, Tyndale RF, Lerman C, Ray R

Design, baseline characteristics, and retention of African American light smokers into a randomized trial involving biological data.

Trials

Cox LS, Faseru B, Mayo MS, Krebill R, Snow TS, Bronars CA, Nollen NL, Choi WS, Okuyemi KS, Salzman GA, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF, Ahluwalia JS

Comparison of urine cotinine and the tobacco-specific nitrosamine metabolite 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and their ratio to discriminate active from passive smoking.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Goniewicz ML, Eisner MD, Lazcano-Ponce E, Zielinska-Danch W, Koszowski B, Sobczak A, Havel C, Jacob P, Benowitz NL

Treatment of nicotine addiction: present therapeutic options and pipeline developments.

Trends in pharmacological sciences

Polosa R, Benowitz NL

Nicotine metabolite ratio predicts smoking topography and carcinogen biomarker level.

Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology

Strasser AA, Benowitz NL, Pinto AG, Tang KZ, Hecht SS, Carmella SG, Tyndale RF, Lerman CE

Biomarkers increase detection of active smoking and secondhand smoke exposure in critically ill patients.

Critical care medicine

Hsieh SJ, Ware LB, Eisner MD, Yu L, Jacob P, Havel C, Goniewicz ML, Matthay MA, Benowitz NL, Calfee CS

Cautions and warnings on the US OTC label for nicotine replacement: what's a doctor to do?

Addictive behaviors

Zapawa LM, Hughes JR, Benowitz NL, Rigotti NA, Shiffman S

Urine menthol as a biomarker of mentholated cigarette smoking.

Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology

Benowitz NL, Dains KM, Dempsey D, Havel C, Wilson M, Jacob P

Nicotine reduction revisited: science and future directions.

Tobacco control

Hatsukami DK, Perkins KA, Lesage MG, Ashley DL, Henningfield JE, Benowitz NL, Backinger CL, Zeller M

Urine cotinine underestimates exposure to the tobacco-derived lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone in passive compared with active smokers.

Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology

Benowitz N, Goniewicz ML, Eisner MD, Lazcano-Ponce E, Zielinska-Danch W, Koszowski B, Sobczak A, Havel C, Jacob P

Carbamazepine but not valproate induces CYP2A6 activity in smokers with mental illness.

Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology

Williams JM, Gandhi KK, Benowitz NL

Nicotine deprivation and pilot performance during simulated flight.

Aviation, space, and environmental medicine

Mumenthaler MS, Benowitz NL, Taylor JL, Friedman L, Noda A, Yesavage JA

Environmental and biological monitoring of exposures to PAHs and ETS in the general population.

Environment international

Aquilina NJ, Delgado-Saborit JM, Meddings C, Baker S, Harrison RM, Jacob P, Wilson M, Yu L, Duan M, Benowitz NL

Higher nicotine levels in schizophrenia compared with controls after smoking a single cigarette.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Williams JM, Gandhi KK, Lu SE, Kumar S, Shen J, Foulds J, Kipen H, Benowitz NL

Nicotine addiction.

The New England journal of medicine

Benowitz NL

Chinese 'low-tar' cigarettes do not deliver lower levels of nicotine and carcinogens.

Tobacco control

Gan Q, Lu W, Xu J, Li X, Goniewicz M, Benowitz NL, Glantz SA

Estimation of nicotine dose after low-level exposure using plasma and urine nicotine metabolites.

Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology

Benowitz NL, Dains KM, Dempsey D, Yu L, Jacob P

What is the role of lidocaine or phenytoin in tricyclic antidepressant-induced cardiotoxicity?

Clinical toxicology (Philadelphia, Pa.)

Foianini A, Joseph Wiegand T, Benowitz N

Genetic variation in nicotine metabolism predicts the efficacy of extended-duration transdermal nicotine therapy.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Lerman C, Jepson C, Wileyto EP, Patterson F, Schnoll R, Mroziewicz M, Benowitz N, Tyndale RF

Higher serum caffeine in smokers with schizophrenia compared to smoking controls.

Drug and alcohol dependence

Gandhi KK, Williams JM, Menza M, Galazyn M, Benowitz NL

Varenicline and pheochromocytoma.

Annals of internal medicine

Hukkanen J, Ukkola O, Benowitz NL

Effects of nicotine on cytochrome P450 2A6 and 2E1 activities.

British journal of clinical pharmacology

Hukkanen J, Jacob Iii P, Peng M, Dempsey D, Benowitz NL

New CYP2A6 gene deletion and conversion variants in a population of Black African descent.

Pharmacogenomics

Mwenifumbo JC, Zhou Q, Benowitz NL, Sellers EM, Tyndale RF

Chinese "herbal" cigarettes are as carcinogenic and addictive as regular cigarettes.

Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology

Gan Q, Yang J, Yang G, Goniewicz M, Benowitz NL, Glantz SA

Elimination kinetics of the tobacco-specific biomarker and lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol.

Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology

Goniewicz ML, Havel CM, Peng MW, Jacob P, Dempsey D, Yu L, Zielinska-Danch W, Koszowski B, Czogala J, Sobczak A, Benowitz NL

Utility and relationships of biomarkers of smoking in African-American light smokers.

Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology

Ho MK, Faseru B, Choi WS, Nollen NL, Mayo MS, Thomas JL, Okuyemi KS, Ahluwalia JS, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF

Interlaboratory comparability of serum cotinine measurements at smoker and nonsmoker concentration levels: a round-robin study.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Bernert JT, Jacob P, Holiday DB, Benowitz NL, Sosnoff CS, Doig MV, Feyerabend C, Aldous KM, Sharifi M, Kellogg MD, Langman LJ

Counseling to reduce children's secondhand smoke exposure and help parents quit smoking: a controlled trial.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Hovell MF, Zakarian JM, Matt GE, Liles S, Jones JA, Hofstetter CR, Larson SN, Benowitz NL

Genetic influences on individual differences in nicotine glucuronidation.

Twin research and human genetics : the official journal of the International Society for Twin Studies

Lessov-Schlaggar CN, Benowitz NL, Jacob P, Swan GE

Prevalence of smoking assessed biochemically in an urban public hospital: a rationale for routine cotinine screening.

American journal of epidemiology

Benowitz NL, Schultz KE, Haller CA, Wu AH, Dains KM, Jacob P

Safety overview of postmarketing and clinical experience of sodium oxybate (Xyrem): abuse, misuse, dependence, and diversion.

Journal of clinical sleep medicine : JCSM : official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine

Wang YG, Swick TJ, Carter LP, Thorpy MJ, Benowitz NL

Longer term exposure to secondhand smoke and health outcomes in COPD: impact of urine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Eisner MD, Jacob P, Benowitz NL, Balmes J, Blanc PD

A systems biology network model for genetic association studies of nicotine addiction and treatment.

Pharmacogenetics and genomics

Thomas PD, Mi H, Swan GE, Lerman C, Benowitz N, Tyndale RF, Bergen AW, Conti DV

Urine nicotine metabolite concentrations in relation to plasma cotinine during low-level nicotine exposure.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Benowitz NL, Dains KM, Dempsey D, Herrera B, Yu L, Jacob P

Genome-wide linkage of cotinine pharmacokinetics suggests candidate regions on chromosomes 9 and 11.

American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics

He Y, Bergen AW, Hops H, Andrews JA, Tildesley E, Lessov-Schlaggar CN, Webster C, Benowitz N, Swan GE

Calibrating self-reported measures of maternal smoking in pregnancy via bioassays using a Monte Carlo approach.

International journal of environmental research and public health

Dukic VM, Niessner M, Pickett KE, Benowitz NL, Wakschlag LS

Dopamine genes and nicotine dependence in treatment-seeking and community smokers.

Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology

Bergen AW, Conti DV, Van Den Berg D, Lee W, Liu J, Li D, Guo N, Mi H, Thomas PD, Lessov-Schlaggar CN, Krasnow R, He Y, Nishita D, Jiang R, McClure JB, Tildesley E, Hops H, Tyndale RF, Benowitz NL, Lerman C, Swan GE

Genetic and environmental influences on the ratio of 3'hydroxycotinine to cotinine in plasma and urine.

Pharmacogenetics and genomics

Swan GE, Lessov-Schlaggar CN, Bergen AW, He Y, Tyndale RF, Benowitz NL

Impact of an indoor smoking ban on bar workers' exposure to secondhand smoke.

Journal of occupational and environmental medicine

Bondy SJ, Zhang B, Kreiger N, Selby P, Benowitz N, Travis H, Florescu A, Greenspan NR, Ferrence R

Association of nicotine metabolite ratio and CYP2A6 genotype with smoking cessation treatment in African-American light smokers.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Ho MK, Mwenifumbo JC, Al Koudsi N, Okuyemi KS, Ahluwalia JS, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF

Progressive commercial cigarette yield reduction: biochemical exposure and behavioral assessment.

Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology

Benowitz NL, Dains KM, Hall SM, Stewart S, Wilson M, Dempsey D, Jacob P

Withdrawal in adolescent light smokers following 24-hour abstinence.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Rubinstein ML, Benowitz NL, Auerback GM, Moscicki AB

Nicotine chemistry, metabolism, kinetics and biomarkers.

Handbook of experimental pharmacology

Benowitz NL, Hukkanen J, Jacob P

Pharmacology of nicotine: addiction, smoking-induced disease, and therapeutics.

Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology

Benowitz NL

Nicotine metabolic rate predicts successful smoking cessation with transdermal nicotine: a validation study.

Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behavior

Schnoll RA, Patterson F, Wileyto EP, Tyndale RF, Benowitz N, Lerman C

A randomized trial of nicotine nasal spray in adolescent smokers.

Pediatrics

Rubinstein ML, Benowitz NL, Auerback GM, Moscicki AB

Dopamine and opioid gene variants are associated with increased smoking reward and reinforcement owing to negative mood.

Behavioural pharmacology

Perkins KA, Lerman C, Grottenthaler A, Ciccocioppo MM, Milanak M, Conklin CA, Bergen AW, Benowitz NL

Gene and gene by sex associations with initial sensitivity to nicotine in nonsmokers.

Behavioural pharmacology

Perkins KA, Lerman C, Coddington S, Jetton C, Karelitz JL, Wilson A, Jennings JR, Ferrell R, Bergen AW, Benowitz NL

Nicotine and postoperative management of pain.

Anesthesia and analgesia

Benowitz NL

Rate of nicotine metabolism and withdrawal symptoms in adolescent light smokers.

Pediatrics

Rubinstein ML, Benowitz NL, Auerback GM, Moscicki AB

Smoking behavior in men hospitalized with cardiovascular disease in Korea: a cross-sectional descriptive study.

Heart & lung : the journal of critical care

Sohn M, Benowitz N, Stotts N, Christopherson D, Kim KS, Jang YS, Ahn MS, Froelicher ES

Nicotine metabolism in pregnant and nonpregnant rabbits.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Tutka P, Dempsey DA, Jacob P, Benowitz NL, Kroetz DL

Mitochondrial DNA content: its genetic heritability and association with renal cell carcinoma.

Journal of the National Cancer Institute

Xing J, Chen M, Wood CG, Lin J, Spitz MR, Ma J, Amos CI, Shields PG, Benowitz NL, Gu J, de Andrade M, Swan GE, Wu X

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor beta2 subunit gene implicated in a systems-based candidate gene study of smoking cessation.

Human molecular genetics

Conti DV, Lee W, Li D, Liu J, Van Den Berg D, Thomas PD, Bergen AW, Swan GE, Tyndale RF, Benowitz NL, Lerman C

Creating and evaluating genetic tests predictive of drug response.

Nature reviews. Drug discovery

Weiss ST, McLeod HL, Flockhart DA, Dolan ME, Benowitz NL, Johnson JA, Ratain MJ, Giacomini KM

Assessing dimensions of nicotine dependence: an evaluation of the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS) and the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM).

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Piper ME, McCarthy DE, Bolt DM, Smith SS, Lerman C, Benowitz N, Fiore MC, Baker TB

Dietary supplement adverse events: report of a one-year poison center surveillance project.

Journal of medical toxicology : official journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology

Haller C, Kearney T, Bent S, Ko R, Benowitz N, Olson K

Chocolate consumption in pregnancy and reduced likelihood of preeclampsia.

Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.)

Triche EW, Grosso LM, Belanger K, Darefsky AS, Benowitz NL, Bracken MB

Genetic influences in the variation in renal clearance of nicotine and cotinine.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Benowitz NL, Lessov-Schlaggar CN, Swan GE

Toward personalized therapy for smoking cessation: a randomized placebo-controlled trial of bupropion.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Patterson F, Schnoll RA, Wileyto EP, Pinto A, Epstein LH, Shields PG, Hawk LW, Tyndale RF, Benowitz N, Lerman C

Human pharmacology of a performance-enhancing dietary supplement under resting and exercise conditions.

British journal of clinical pharmacology

Haller CA, Duan M, Jacob P, Benowitz N

Prenatal caffeine assessment: fetal and maternal biomarkers or self-reported intake?

Annals of epidemiology

Grosso LM, Triche E, Benowitz NL, Bracken MB

Determinants of salivary cotinine level: a population-based study in Brazil.

Revista de saude publica

Figueiredo VC, Szklo M, Szklo AS, Benowitz N, Lozana JA, Casado L, Masson E, Samet J

Gene-gene interactions between CYP2B6 and CYP2A6 in nicotine metabolism.

Pharmacogenetics and genomics

Ring HZ, Valdes AM, Nishita DM, Prasad S, Jacob P, Tyndale RF, Swan GE, Benowitz NL

Nicotine and carcinogen exposure with smoking of progressively reduced nicotine content cigarette.

Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology

Benowitz NL, Hall SM, Stewart S, Wilson M, Dempsey D, Jacob P

Mutagen sensitivity and genetic variants in nucleotide excision repair pathway: genotype-phenotype correlation.

Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology

Lin J, Swan GE, Shields PG, Benowitz NL, Gu J, Amos CI, de Andrade M, Spitz MR, Wu X

Secondhand smoke exposure in Mexican discotheques.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Lazcano-Ponce E, Benowitz N, Sanchez-Zamorano LM, Barbosa-Sanchez L, Valdes-Salgado R, Jacob P, Diaz R, Hernandez-Avila M

Cytisine for smoking cessation: a research agenda.

Drug and alcohol dependence

Etter JF, Lukas RJ, Benowitz NL, West R, Dresler CM

Beliefs about health, smoking, and future smoking cessation among South Korean men hospitalized for cardiovascular disease.

Heart & lung : the journal of critical care

Sohn M, Stotts NA, Benowitz N, Christopherson D, Kim KS, Jang YS, Ahn MS, Froelicher ES

CHRNA4 and tobacco dependence: from gene regulation to treatment outcome.

Archives of general psychiatry

Hutchison KE, Allen DL, Filbey FM, Jepson C, Lerman C, Benowitz NL, Stitzel J, Bryan A, McGeary J, Haughey HM

Translational research in medication development for nicotine dependence.

Nature reviews. Drug discovery

Lerman C, LeSage MG, Perkins KA, O'Malley SS, Siegel SJ, Benowitz NL, Corrigall WA

Higher nicotine and carbon monoxide levels in menthol cigarette smokers with and without schizophrenia.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Williams JM, Gandhi KK, Steinberg ML, Foulds J, Ziedonis DM, Benowitz NL

Relationship of human toenail nicotine, cotinine, and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol to levels of these biomarkers in plasma and urine.

Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology

Stepanov I, Hecht SS, Lindgren B, Jacob P, Wilson M, Benowitz NL

Cigarette smoking and the personalization of irinotecan therapy.

Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology

Benowitz NL

CYP2B6 genotype does not alter nicotine metabolism, plasma levels, or abstinence with nicotine replacement therapy.

Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology

Lee AM, Jepson C, Shields PG, Benowitz N, Lerman C, Tyndale RF

Genetic and environmental sources of variation in heart rate response to infused nicotine in twins.

Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology

Swan GE, Lessov-Schlaggar CN, Krasnow RE, Wilhelmsen KC, Jacob P, Benowitz NL

Identification of novel CYP2A6*1B variants: the CYP2A6*1B allele is associated with faster in vivo nicotine metabolism.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Mwenifumbo JC, Lessov-Schlaggar CN, Zhou Q, Krasnow RE, Swan GE, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF

Genetic nondiscrimination legislation: a critical prerequisite for pharmacogenomics data sharing.

Pharmacogenomics

Altman RB, Benowitz N, Gurwitz D, Lunshof J, Relling M, Lamba J, Wieben E, Mooney S, Giacomini K, Weiss S, Johnson JA, McLeod H, Flockhart D, Weinshilboum R, Shuldiner AR, Roden D, Krauss RM, Ratain M

Vaporization as a smokeless cannabis delivery system: a pilot study.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Abrams DI, Vizoso HP, Shade SB, Jay C, Kelly ME, Benowitz NL

Modeling the relationship of cotinine and self-reported measures of maternal smoking during pregnancy: a deterministic approach.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Dukic VM, Niessner M, Benowitz N, Hans S, Wakschlag L

The pharmacogenetics research network: from SNP discovery to clinical drug response.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Giacomini KM, Brett CM, Altman RB, Benowitz NL, Dolan ME, Flockhart DA, Johnson JA, Hayes DF, Klein T, Krauss RM, Kroetz DL, McLeod HL, Nguyen AT, Ratain MJ, Relling MV, Reus V, Roden DM, Schaefer CA, Shuldiner AR, Skaar T, Tantisira K, Tyndale RF, Wang L, Weinshilboum RM, Weiss ST, Zineh I

Urine nicotine metabolites and smoking behavior in a multiracial/multiethnic national sample of young adults.

American journal of epidemiology

Kandel DB, Hu MC, Schaffran C, Udry JR, Benowitz NL

Population pharmacokinetics of nicotine and its metabolites I. Model development.

Journal of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics

Levi M, Dempsey DA, Benowitz NL, Sheiner LB

Prediction methods for nicotine clearance using cotinine and 3-hydroxy-cotinine spot saliva samples II. Model application.

Journal of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics

Levi M, Dempsey DA, Benowitz NL, Sheiner LB

Cotinine levels in relation to smoking behavior and addiction in young adolescent smokers.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Rubinstein ML, Thompson PJ, Benowitz NL, Shiffman S, Moscicki AB

Nicotine, cotinine, withdrawal, and craving patterns during smoking and nicotine nasal spray use: results from a pilot study with African American men.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Mabry PL, Tooze JA, Moser RP, Augustson EM, Malcolm RJ, Benowitz NL

The variability of urinary cotinine levels in young children: implications for measuring ETS exposure.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Matt GE, Hovell MF, Quintana PJ, Zakarian J, Liles S, Meltzer SB, Benowitz NL

Nicotine intake and dose response when smoking reduced-nicotine content cigarettes.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Benowitz NL, Jacob P, Herrera B

Pharmacogenomics: challenges and opportunities.

Annals of internal medicine

Roden DM, Altman RB, Benowitz NL, Flockhart DA, Giacomini KM, Johnson JA, Krauss RM, McLeod HL, Ratain MJ, Relling MV, Ring HZ, Shuldiner AR, Weinshilboum RM, Weiss ST

CYP2A6 genotype and the metabolism and disposition kinetics of nicotine.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Benowitz NL, Swan GE, Jacob P, Lessov-Schlaggar CN, Tyndale RF

Effect of grapefruit juice on cytochrome P450 2A6 and nicotine renal clearance.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Hukkanen J, Jacob P, Benowitz NL

Evaluation of urinary trans-3'-hydroxycotinine as a biomarker of children's environmental tobacco smoke exposure.

Biomarkers : biochemical indicators of exposure, response, and susceptibility to chemicals

Matt GE, Quintana PJ, Liles S, Hovell MF, Zakarian JM, Jacob P, Benowitz NL

Cotinine concentration in smokers from different countries: relationship with amount smoked and cigarette type.

Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology

Blackford AL, Yang G, Hernandez-Avila M, Przewozniak K, Zatonski W, Figueiredo V, Avila-Tang E, Ma J, Benowitz NL, Samet JM

Determinants of the rate of nicotine metabolism and effects on smoking behavior.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Johnstone E, Benowitz N, Cargill A, Jacob R, Hinks L, Day I, Murphy M, Walton R

Exposure to second-hand smoke air pollution assessed from bar patrons' urinary cotinine.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Repace J, Hughes E, Benowitz N

Gamma-hydroxybutyrate and ethanol effects and interactions in humans.

Journal of clinical psychopharmacology

Thai D, Dyer JE, Benowitz NL, Haller CA

Anabasine toxicity from a topical folk remedy.

Clinical pediatrics

Murphy NG, Albin C, Tai W, Benowitz NL

Guidelines on nicotine dose selection for in vivo research.

Psychopharmacology

Matta SG, Balfour DJ, Benowitz NL, Boyd RT, Buccafusco JJ, Caggiula AR, Craig CR, Collins AC, Damaj MI, Donny EC, Gardiner PS, Grady SR, Heberlein U, Leonard SS, Levin ED, Lukas RJ, Markou A, Marks MJ, McCallum SE, Parameswaran N, Perkins KA, Picciotto MR, Quik M, Rose JE, Rothenfluh A, Schafer WR, Stolerman IP, Tyndale RF, Wehner JM, Zirger JM

Biomarkers to assess the utility of potential reduced exposure tobacco products.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Hatsukami DK, Benowitz NL, Rennard SI, Oncken C, Hecht SS

Salivary cotinine concentration versus self-reported cigarette smoking: Three patterns of inconsistency in adolescence.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Kandel DB, Schaffran C, Griesler PC, Hu MC, Davies M, Benowitz N

Intraindividual variability of plasma antioxidants, markers of oxidative stress, C-reactive protein, cotinine, and other biomarkers.

Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.)

Block G, Dietrich M, Norkus E, Jensen C, Benowitz NL, Morrow JD, Hudes M, Packer L

Mutagen sensitivity has high heritability: evidence from a twin study.

Cancer research

Wu X, Spitz MR, Amos CI, Lin J, Shao L, Gu J, de Andrade M, Benowitz NL, Shields PG, Swan GE

Directly measured secondhand smoke exposure and COPD health outcomes.

BMC pulmonary medicine

Eisner MD, Balmes J, Yelin EH, Katz PP, Hammond SK, Benowitz N, Blanc PD

A genome-wide screen for nicotine dependence susceptibility loci.

American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics

Swan GE, Hops H, Wilhelmsen KC, Lessov-Schlaggar CN, Cheng LS, Hudmon KS, Amos CI, Feiler HS, Ring HZ, Andrews JA, Tildesley E, Benowitz N

Nicotine metabolite ratio predicts efficacy of transdermal nicotine for smoking cessation.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Lerman C, Tyndale R, Patterson F, Wileyto EP, Shields PG, Pinto A, Benowitz N

Female sex and oral contraceptive use accelerate nicotine metabolism.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Benowitz NL, Lessov-Schlaggar CN, Swan GE, Jacob P

Smoking habits, nicotine use, and congenital malformations.

Obstetrics and gynecology

Le Houezec J, Benowitz NL

Characterization of the novel CYP2A6*21 allele using in vivo nicotine kinetics.

European journal of clinical pharmacology

Al Koudsi N, Mwenifumbo JC, Sellers EM, Benowitz NL, Swan GE, Tyndale RF

Caffeine metabolites in umbilical cord blood, cytochrome P-450 1A2 activity, and intrauterine growth restriction.

American journal of epidemiology

Grosso LM, Triche EW, Belanger K, Benowitz NL, Holford TR, Bracken MB

Biomarkers to assess the utility of potential reduced exposure tobacco products.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Hatsukami DK, Benowitz NL, Rennard SI, Oncken C, Hecht SS

Impact of CYP2A6 genotype on pretreatment smoking behaviour and nicotine levels from and usage of nicotine replacement therapy.

Molecular psychiatry

Malaiyandi V, Lerman C, Benowitz NL, Jepson C, Patterson F, Tyndale RF

Ethnic differences in nicotine metabolic rate among New Zealanders.

The New Zealand medical journal

Lea R, Benowitz N, Green M, Fowles J, Vishvanath A, Dickson S, Lea M, Woodward A, Chambers G, Phillips D

Support for previously identified alcoholism susceptibility Loci in a cohort selected for smoking behavior.

Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research

Wilhelmsen KC, Swan GE, Cheng LS, Lessov-Schlaggar CN, Amos CI, Feiler HS, Hudmon KS, Ring HZ, Andrews JA, Tildesley E, Benowitz NL, Hops H

Hemodynamic effects of ephedra-free weight-loss supplements in humans.

The American journal of medicine

Haller CA, Benowitz NL, Jacob P

Effect of pregnancy on a measure of FMO3 activity.

British journal of clinical pharmacology

Hukkanen J, Dempsey D, Jacob P, Benowitz NL

Increased nicotine and cotinine levels in smokers with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder is not a metabolic effect.

Schizophrenia research

Williams JM, Ziedonis DM, Abanyie F, Steinberg ML, Foulds J, Benowitz NL

Carcinogen exposure during short-term switching from regular to "light" cigarettes.

Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology

Benowitz NL, Jacob P, Bernert JT, Wilson M, Wang L, Allen F, Dempsey D

Short-term metabolic and hemodynamic effects of ephedra and guarana combinations.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Haller CA, Jacob P, Benowitz NL

Toward a comprehensive long term nicotine policy.

Tobacco control

Gray N, Henningfield JE, Benowitz NL, Connolly GN, Dresler C, Fagerstrom K, Jarvis MJ, Boyle P

Influence of menstrual cycle on cytochrome P450 2A6 activity and cardiovascular effects of nicotine.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Hukkanen J, Gourlay SG, Kenkare S, Benowitz NL

Mechanistic pharmacokinetic modelling of ephedrine, norephedrine and caffeine in healthy subjects.

British journal of clinical pharmacology

Csajka C, Haller CA, Benowitz NL, Verotta D

Metabolism and disposition kinetics of nicotine.

Pharmacological reviews

Hukkanen J, Jacob P, Benowitz NL

Nicotine metabolism: the impact of CYP2A6 on estimates of additive genetic influence.

Pharmacogenetics and genomics

Swan GE, Benowitz NL, Lessov CN, Jacob P, Tyndale RF, Wilhelmsen K

Caffeine-herbal ephedra combination increases resting energy expenditure, heart rate and blood pressure.

Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

Vukovich MD, Schoorman R, Heilman C, Jacob P, Benowitz NL

Effect of menthol on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of felodipine in healthy subjects.

European journal of clinical pharmacology

Gelal A, Balkan D, Ozzeybek D, Kaplan YC, Gurler S, Guven H, Benowitz NL

Determinants of salivary cotinine levels among current smokers in Mexico.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Campuzano JC, Hernandez-Avila M, Jaakkola MS, Lazcano Ponce E, Kuri Morales P, Bautista P, Benowitz NL, Ceraso M, Blackford A, Samet JM

Cigarette smoking and infection.

Archives of internal medicine

Arcavi L, Benowitz NL

Clarification of SRNT workgroup guidelines for measures in clinical trials of smoking cessation therapies.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Hughes JR, Benowitz N, Hatsukami D, Mermelstein RJ, Shiffman S

Pharmacogenetics of nicotine metabolism in twins: methods and procedures.

Twin research : the official journal of the International Society for Twin Studies

Swan GE, Benowitz NL, Jacob P, Lessov CN, Tyndale RF, Wilhelmsen K, Krasnow RE, McElroy MR, Moore SE, Wambach M

Nicotine metabolite ratio as an index of cytochrome P450 2A6 metabolic activity.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Dempsey D, Tutka P, Jacob P, Allen F, Schoedel K, Tyndale RF, Benowitz NL

Reducing tobacco addiction through tobacco product regulation.

Tobacco control

Henningfield JE, Benowitz NL, Connolly GN, Davis RM, Gray N, Myers ML, Zeller M

Mentholated cigarette smoking inhibits nicotine metabolism.

The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics

Benowitz NL, Herrera B, Jacob P

Concentrations of ephedra alkaloids and caffeine in commercial dietary supplements.

Journal of analytical toxicology

Haller CA, Duan M, Benowitz NL, Jacob P

Determination of ephedra alkaloid and caffeine concentrations in dietary supplements and biological fluids.

Journal of analytical toxicology

Jacob P, Haller CA, Duan M, Yu L, Peng M, Benowitz NL

Enhanced stimulant and metabolic effects of combined ephedrine and caffeine.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Haller CA, Jacob P, Benowitz NL

Pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation during pregnancy.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Benowitz N, Dempsey D

Individualizing nicotine replacement therapy for the treatment of tobacco dependence: a randomized trial.

Annals of internal medicine

Lerman C, Kaufmann V, Rukstalis M, Patterson F, Perkins K, Audrain-McGovern J, Benowitz N

High rates of sustained smoking cessation in women hospitalized with cardiovascular disease: the Women's Initiative for Nonsmoking (WINS).

Circulation

Sivarajan Froelicher ES, Miller NH, Christopherson DJ, Martin K, Parker KM, Amonetti M, Lin Z, Sohn M, Benowitz N, Taylor CB, Bacchetti P

Smoking less as a treatment goal for those who cannot stop smoking.

The American journal of medicine

Benowitz NL

Clonidine for smoking cessation.

The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

Gourlay SG, Stead LF, Benowitz NL

The functional mu opioid receptor (OPRM1) Asn40Asp variant predicts short-term response to nicotine replacement therapy in a clinical trial.

The pharmacogenomics journal

Lerman C, Wileyto EP, Patterson F, Rukstalis M, Audrain-McGovern J, Restine S, Shields PG, Kaufmann V, Redden D, Benowitz N, Berrettini WH

Effects of cigarette smoking and carbon monoxide on chlorzoxazone and caffeine metabolism.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Benowitz NL, Peng M, Jacob P

Tobacco use and dependence.

Seminars in oncology nursing

Sohn M, Hartley C, Froelicher ES, Benowitz NL

Environmental and genetic determinants of tobacco use: methodology for a multidisciplinary, longitudinal family-based investigation.

Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology

Swan GE, Hudmon KS, Jack LM, Hemberger K, Carmelli D, Khroyan TV, Ring HZ, Hops H, Andrews JA, Tildesley E, McBride D, Benowitz N, Webster C, Wilhelmsen KC, Feiler HS, Koenig B, Caron L, Illes J, Cheng LS

Nicotine metabolite ratio as a predictor of cigarette consumption.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Benowitz NL, Pomerleau OF, Pomerleau CS, Jacob P

Short-term effects of cannabinoids in patients with HIV-1 infection: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Annals of internal medicine

Abrams DI, Hilton JF, Leiser RJ, Shade SB, Elbeik TA, Aweeka FT, Benowitz NL, Bredt BM, Kosel B, Aberg JA, Deeks SG, Mitchell TF, Mulligan K, Bacchetti P, McCune JM, Schambelan M

Influence of menthol on caffeine disposition and pharmacodynamics in healthy female volunteers.

European journal of clinical pharmacology

Gelal A, Guven H, Balkan D, Artok L, Benowitz NL

Individual differences in nicotine intake per cigarette.

Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology

Patterson F, Benowitz N, Shields P, Kaufmann V, Jepson C, Wileyto P, Kucharski S, Lerman C

Determinants of salivary cotinine concentrations in Chinese male smokers.

Preventive medicine

Jaakkola MS, Ma J, Yang G, Chin MF, Benowitz NL, Ceraso M, Samet JM

Once-daily dosing of aminoglycosides: how much monitoring is truly required?

The American journal of medicine

Winston L, Benowitz N

Basic cardiovascular research and its implications for the medicinal use of nicotine.

Journal of the American College of Cardiology

Benowitz NL

Does menthol enhance the addictiveness of cigarettes? An agenda for research.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Henningfield JE, Benowitz NL, Ahijevych K, Garrett BE, Connolly GN, Wayne GF

Vitamin C supplementation decreases oxidative stress biomarker f2-isoprostanes in plasma of nonsmokers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke.

Nutrition and cancer

Dietrich M, Block G, Benowitz NL, Morrow JD, Hudes M, Jacob P, Norkus EP, Packer L

Anabasine and anatabine as biomarkers for tobacco use during nicotine replacement therapy.

Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology

Jacob P, Hatsukami D, Severson H, Hall S, Yu L, Benowitz NL

Women's Initiative for Nonsmoking (WINS V): under-use of nicotine replacement therapy.

Heart & lung : the journal of critical care

Mahrer-Imhof R, Froelicher ES, Li WW, Parker KM, Benowitz N

Cardiovascular effects of nasal and transdermal nicotine and cigarette smoking.

Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979)

Benowitz NL, Hansson A, Jacob P

Maternal smoking during pregnancy and severe antisocial behavior in offspring: a review.

American journal of public health

Wakschlag LS, Pickett KE, Cook E, Benowitz NL, Leventhal BL

Pharmacology of ephedra alkaloids and caffeine after single-dose dietary supplement use.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Haller CA, Jacob P, Benowitz NL

Accelerated metabolism of nicotine and cotinine in pregnant smokers.

The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics

Dempsey D, Jacob P, Benowitz NL

Systemic absorption of topical lidocaine in normal volunteers, patients with post-herpetic neuralgia, and patients with acute herpes zoster.

Journal of pharmaceutical sciences

Campbell BJ, Rowbotham M, Davies PS, Jacob P, Benowitz NL

Acute aortic dissection related to crack cocaine.

Circulation

Hsue PY, Salinas CL, Bolger AF, Benowitz NL, Waters DD

The effects of cannabinoids on the pharmacokinetics of indinavir and nelfinavir.

AIDS (London, England)

Kosel BW, Aweeka FT, Benowitz NL, Shade SB, Hilton JF, Lizak PS, Abrams DI

Influence of arterial vs. venous sampling site on nicotine tolerance model selection and parameter estimation.

Journal of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics

Schaedeli F, Pitsiu M, Benowitz NL, Gourlay SG, Verotta D

Slower metabolism and reduced intake of nicotine from cigarette smoking in Chinese-Americans.

Journal of the National Cancer Institute

Benowitz NL, Pérez-Stable EJ, Herrera B, Jacob P

Reducing tobacco harm: research challenges and issues.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Hatsukami DK, Slade J, Benowitz NL, Giovino GA, Gritz ER, Leischow S, Warner KE

Deficient C-oxidation of nicotine continued.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Benowitz NL, Griffin C, Tyndale R

Cardiovascular effects of carbon monoxide and cigarette smoking.

Journal of the American College of Cardiology

Zevin S, Saunders S, Gourlay SG, Jacob P, Benowitz NL

Prenatal nicotine exposure alters pulmonary function in newborn rhesus monkeys.

American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine

Sekhon HS, Keller JA, Benowitz NL, Spindel ER

Safety of nicotine in smokers with hypertension.

American journal of hypertension

Benowitz NL

Endogenous opioids suppress activation of nociceptors by sub-nanomolar nicotine.

British journal of pharmacology

Miao FJ, Benowitz NL, Levine JD

Systemic nicotine exposure in tobacco harvesters.

Archives of environmental health

D'Alessandro A, Benowitz NL, Muzi G, Eisner MD, Filiberto S, Fantozzi P, Montanari L, Abbritti G

Simultaneous determination of mecamylamine, nicotine, and cotinine in plasma by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis

Jacob P, Wu S, Yu L, Benowitz NL

Clinical pharmacology of oral cotinine.

Drug and alcohol dependence

Zevin S, Jacob P, Geppetti P, Benowitz NL

Nasal mucosal versus gastrointestinal absorption of nasally administered cocaine.

European journal of clinical pharmacology

Fattinger K, Benowitz NL, Jones RT, Verotta D

Nicotine blood levels and subjective craving for cigarettes.

Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behavior

Jarvik ME, Madsen DC, Olmstead RE, Iwamoto-Schaap PN, Elins JL, Benowitz NL

Nicotine-mecamylamine interactions.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Zevin S, Jacob P, Benowitz NL

Effects of cigarette smoking and carbon monoxide on nicotine and cotinine metabolism.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Benowitz NL, Jacob P

Nicotine metabolism and elimination kinetics in newborns.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Dempsey D, Jacob P, Benowitz NL

Safety of intra-amniotic digoxin administration before late second-trimester abortion by dilation and evacuation.

American journal of obstetrics and gynecology

Drey EA, Thomas LJ, Benowitz NL, Goldschlager N, Darney PD

Nicotine impairs endothelium-dependent dilatation in human veins in vivo.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Chalon S, Moreno H, Benowitz NL, Hoffman BB, Blaschke TF

Diagnosis and treatment of nicotine dependence with emphasis on nicotine replacement therapy. A status report.

European heart journal

Balfour D, Benowitz N, Fagerström K, Kunze M, Keil U

Clonidine for smoking cessation.

The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

Gourlay SG, Stead LF, Benowitz NL

Influence of age on the thermic response to caffeine in women.

Metabolism: clinical and experimental

Arciero PJ, Bougopoulos CL, Nindl BC, Benowitz NL

The use of pharmacotherapies for smoking cessation during pregnancy.

Tobacco control

Benowitz NL, Dempsey DA, Goldenberg RL, Hughes JR, Dolan-Mullen P, Ogburn PL, Oncken C, Orleans CT, Slotkin TA, Whiteside HP, Yaffe S

Ethnic differences in N-glucuronidation of nicotine and cotinine.

The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics

Benowitz NL, Perez-Stable EJ, Fong I, Modin G, Herrera B, Jacob P

Snuff, nicotine and cardiovascular disease: implications for tobacco control.

Journal of the American College of Cardiology

Benowitz NL

Coffee, alcohol, and the liver.

Annals of epidemiology

Sharp DS, Everhart JE, Benowitz NL

Nicotine addiction.

Primary care

Benowitz NL

Disposition kinetics and effects of menthol.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Gelal A, Jacob P, Yu L, Benowitz NL

Drug interactions with tobacco smoking. An update.

Clinical pharmacokinetics

Zevin S, Benowitz NL

Biomarkers of environmental tobacco smoke exposure.

Environmental health perspectives

Benowitz NL

Caffeine consumption and menstrual function.

American journal of epidemiology

Fenster L, Quale C, Waller K, Windham GC, Elkin EP, Benowitz N, Swan SH

Occasional smoking in a study of premenopausal women.

American Journal of Public Health

Elkin EP, Windham GC, Benowitz NL, Swan SH

The biology of nicotine dependence: from the 1988 Surgeon General's Report to the present and into the future.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Benowitz NL

Suppression of nicotine intake during ad libitum cigarette smoking by high-dose transdermal nicotine.

The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics

Benowitz NL, Zevin S, Jacob P

Gender differences in the pharmacology of nicotine addiction.

Addiction biology

Benowitz NL, Hatsukami D

Clinical pharmacology of nicotine.

Clinics in dermatology

Zevin S, Gourlay SG, Benowitz NL

Caffeine withdrawal in normal school-age children.

Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

Bernstein GA, Carroll ME, Dean NW, Crosby RD, Perwien AR, Benowitz NL

Nicotine metabolism and intake in black and white smokers.

JAMA

Pérez-Stable EJ, Herrera B, Jacob P, Benowitz NL

Dose-related cardiovascular and endocrine effects of transdermal nicotine.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Zevin S, Jacob P, Benowitz NL

Importance of chronopharmacokinetics in design and evaluation of transdermal drug delivery systems.

The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics

Gries JM, Benowitz N, Verotta D

Rate of caffeine metabolism and risk of spontaneous abortion.

American journal of epidemiology

Fenster L, Quale C, Hiatt RA, Wilson M, Windham GC, Benowitz NL

Effects of cotinine on information processing in nonsmokers.

Psychopharmacology

Herzig KE, Callaway E, Halliday R, Naylor H, Benowitz NL

Reducing the addictiveness of cigarettes. Council on Scientific Affairs, American Medical Association.

Tobacco control

Henningfield JE, Benowitz NL, Slade J, Houston TP, Davis RM, Deitchman SD

Birthing of clinical pharmacologists.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Benowitz NL

Nicotine content of the eclipse nicotine delivery device.

American Journal of Public Health

Benowitz NL, Jacob P, Slade J, Yu L

Treating tobacco addiction--nicotine or no nicotine?

The New England journal of medicine

Benowitz NL

Caffeinated beverages, decaffeinated coffee, and spontaneous abortion.

Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.)

Fenster L, Hubbard AE, Swan SH, Windham GC, Waller K, Hiatt RA, Benowitz N

Absorption kinetics of misoprostol with oral or vaginal administration.

Obstetrics and gynecology

Zieman M, Fong SK, Benowitz NL, Banskter D, Darney PD

Nicotine patch therapy in smoking cessation reduces the extent of exercise-induced myocardial ischemia.

Journal of the American College of Cardiology

Mahmarian JJ, Moyé LA, Nasser GA, Nagueh SF, Bloom MF, Benowitz NL, Verani MS, Byrd WG, Pratt CM

Cardiovascular toxicity of nicotine: implications for nicotine replacement therapy.

Journal of the American College of Cardiology

Benowitz NL, Gourlay SG

Cotinine effects on nicotine metabolism.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Zevin S, Jacob P, Benowitz N

Pharmacodynamics of acute tolerance to multiple nicotinic effects in humans.

The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics

Fattinger K, Verotta D, Benowitz NL

Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco.

Addiction (Abingdon, England)

Heishman SJ, Balfour DJ, Benowitz NL, Hatsukami DK, Lindstrom JM, Ockene JK

Saliva cotinine levels as a function of collection method.

Addiction (Abingdon, England)

Schneider NG, Jacob P, Nilsson F, Leischow SJ, Benowitz NL, Olmstead RE

Contribution of adrenal hormones to nicotine-induced inhibition of synovial plasma extravasation in the rat.

British journal of pharmacology

Miao FJ, Benowitz NL, Heller PH, Levine JD

Determinants of plasma concentrations of nicotine and cotinine during cigarette smoking and transdermal nicotine treatment.

European journal of clinical pharmacology

Gourlay SG, Benowitz NL, Forbes A, McNeil JJ

Individual differences in nicotine kinetics and metabolism in humans.

NIDA research monograph

Benowitz NL, Jacob P

What should be the elements of any settlement with the tobacco industry?

Tobacco control

Burns D, Benowitz N, N'Connolly GN, Cummings KM, Davis RM, Henningfield JE, Shopland DR, Warner KE

Chronopharmacokinetics of nicotine.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Gries JM, Benowitz N, Verotta D

Orthostatic hypertension due to vascular adrenergic hypersensitivity.

Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979)

Benowitz NL, Zevin S, Carlsen S, Wright J, Schambelan M, Cheitlin M

CYP2D6 phenotype and the metabolism of nicotine and cotinine.

Pharmacogenetics

Benowitz NL, Jacob P, Perez-Stable E

The effect of liver disease on urine caffeine metabolite ratios.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Denaro CP, Wilson M, Jacob P, Benowitz NL

Individualizing medical treatment for tobacco dependence.

The European respiratory journal

Sachs DP, Benowitz NL

Recurrent non-Q-wave myocardial infarction associated with toluene abuse.

American heart journal

Hussain TF, Heidenreich PA, Benowitz N

Validation of urine caffeine metabolite ratios with use of stable isotope-labeled caffeine clearance.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Denaro CP, Wilson M, Jacob P, Benowitz NL

Absorption rate of methylxanthines following capsules, cola and chocolate.

European journal of clinical pharmacology

Mumford GK, Benowitz NL, Evans SM, Kaminski BJ, Preston KL, Sannerud CA, Silverman K, Griffiths RR

Marijuana and hyperthermia.

Journal of toxicology. Clinical toxicology

Walter FG, Bey TA, Ruschke DS, Benowitz NL

Pharmacology of nicotine: addiction and therapeutics.

Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology

Benowitz NL

Predictors of carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide exposure in smoke inhalation patients.

Journal of toxicology. Clinical toxicology

Shusterman D, Alexeeff G, Hargis C, Kaplan J, Sato R, Gelb A, Becker C, Benowitz N, Gillen M, Thollaug S, Balmes J

Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco.

Addiction (Abingdon, England)

Perkins KA, Benowitz N, Henningfield J, Newhouse P, Pomerleau O, Swan G

Smoking cessation and the nicotine patch: much more to be done.

Journal of general internal medicine

Kimmel SE, Benowitz N

Sympathomimetic effects of paraxanthine and caffeine in humans.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Benowitz NL, Jacob P, Mayan H, Denaro C

Cigarette smoking sensitizes and desensitizes impedance-measured ADP-induced platelet aggregation in whole blood.

Thrombosis and haemostasis

Sharp DS, Benowitz NL, Bath PM, Martin JF, Beswick AD, Elwood PC

Effects of caffeine ingestion on NE kinetics, fat oxidation, and energy expenditure in younger and older men.

The American journal of physiology

Arciero PJ, Gardner AW, Calles-Escandon J, Benowitz NL, Poehlman ET

Nicotine patches.

BMJ (Clinical research ed.)

Benowitz NL

Deficient C-oxidation of nicotine.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Benowitz NL, Jacob P, Sachs DP

Cigarettes and addiction.

BMJ (Clinical research ed.)

Henningfield JE, Benowitz NL

Is serum cotinine a better measure of cigarette smoking than self-report?

Preventive medicine

Pérez-Stable EJ, Benowitz NL, Marín G

Metabolic interactions between surplus dietary energy intake and cigarette smoking or its cessation.

The American journal of physiology

Neese RA, Benowitz NL, Hoh R, Faix D, LaBua A, Pun K, Hellerstein MK

Metabolism of nicotine to cotinine studied by a dual stable isotope method.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Benowitz NL, Jacob P

Caffeine and coffee: effects on health and cardiovascular disease.

Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part C, Pharmacology, toxicology & endocrinology

Chou TM, Benowitz NL

Role of vagal afferents and spinal pathways modulating inhibition of bradykinin-induced plasma extravasation by intrathecal nicotine.

Journal of neurophysiology

Miao FJ, Jänig W, Dallman MF, Benowitz NL, Heller PH, Basbaum AI, Levine JD

A proposal to develop meaningful labeling for cigarettes.

JAMA

Henningfield JE, Kozlowski LT, Benowitz NL

Establishing a nicotine threshold for addiction. The implications for tobacco regulation.

The New England journal of medicine

Benowitz NL, Henningfield JE

Environmental tobacco smoke hazards and benefits of work-site nonsmoking programs.

The Western journal of medicine

Benowitz NL, Leistikow B

A low dose of subcutaneous nicotine improves information processing in non-smokers.

Psychopharmacology

Le Houezec J, Halliday R, Benowitz NL, Callaway E, Naylor H, Herzig K

Seizures associated with poisoning and drug overdose.

The American journal of emergency medicine

Olson KR, Kearney TE, Dyer JE, Benowitz NL, Blanc PD

Caffeine effects on learning, performance, and anxiety in normal school-age children.

Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

Bernstein GA, Carroll ME, Crosby RD, Perwien AR, Go FS, Benowitz NL

Effects of cigarette smoking and its cessation on lipid metabolism and energy expenditure in heavy smokers.

The Journal of clinical investigation

Hellerstein MK, Benowitz NL, Neese RA, Schwartz JM, Hoh R, Jacob P, Hsieh J, Faix D

Nicotine metabolic profile in man: comparison of cigarette smoking and transdermal nicotine.

The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics

Benowitz NL, Jacob P, Fong I, Gupta S

Seizures associated with poisoning and drug overdose.

The American journal of emergency medicine

Olson KR, Kearney TE, Dyer JE, Benowitz NL, Blanc PD

Stereoselective metabolism of (S)-(-)-nicotine in humans: formation of trans-(S)-(-)-nicotine N-1'-oxide.

Chemical research in toxicology

Park SB, Jacob P, Benowitz NL, Cashman JR

Nicotine effects on eicosanoid formation and hemostatic function: comparison of transdermal nicotine and cigarette smoking.

Journal of the American College of Cardiology

Benowitz NL, Fitzgerald GA, Wilson M, Zhang Q

Saliva nicotine as an index of plasma levels in nicotine skin patch users.

Therapeutic drug monitoring

Rose JE, Levin ED, Benowitz N

Bioavailability and absorption kinetics of nicotine following application of a transdermal system.

British journal of clinical pharmacology

Gupta SK, Benowitz NL, Jacob P, Rolf CN, Gorsline J

Smoking-induced coronary vasoconstriction: implications for therapeutic use of nicotine.

Journal of the American College of Cardiology

Benowitz NL

Clinical significance of genetic influences on cardiovascular drug metabolism.

Cardiovascular drugs and therapy

Arcavi L, Benowitz NL

Higher levels of nicotine in arterial than in venous blood after cigarette smoking.

Drug and alcohol dependence

Henningfield JE, Stapleton JM, Benowitz NL, Grayson RF, London ED

Altered patterns of drug metabolism in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Lee BL, Wong D, Benowitz NL, Sullam PM

Nicotine and cotinine elimination pharmacokinetics in smokers and nonsmokers.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Benowitz NL, Jacob P

Adrenal medullary modulation of the inhibition of bradykinin-induced plasma extravasation by intrathecal nicotine.

The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics

Miao FJ, Dallman MF, Benowitz NL, Basbaum AI, Levine JD

A clinical pharmacological study of subcutaneous nicotine.

European journal of clinical pharmacology

Le Houezec J, Jacob P, Benowitz NL

Clinical pharmacology and toxicology of cocaine.

Pharmacology & toxicology

Benowitz NL

Hydroxocobalamin as a cyanide antidote: safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics in heavily smoking normal volunteers.

Journal of toxicology. Clinical toxicology

Forsyth JC, Mueller PD, Becker CE, Osterloh J, Benowitz NL, Rumack BH, Hall AH

Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling of caffeine: tolerance to pressor effects.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Shi J, Benowitz NL, Denaro CP, Sheiner LB

Orthostatic hypotension in ciguatera fish poisoning.

Archives of internal medicine

Geller RJ, Benowitz NL

The genetics of drug dependence: tobacco addiction.

The New England journal of medicine

Benowitz NL

Intravenous nicotine retards transdermal absorption of nicotine: evidence of blood flow--limited percutaneous absorption.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Benowitz NL, Jacob P, Olsson P, Johansson CJ

Metabolism of nicotine by human liver microsomes: stereoselective formation of trans-nicotine N'-oxide.

Chemical research in toxicology

Cashman JR, Park SB, Yang ZC, Wrighton SA, Jacob P, Benowitz NL

Sympathoadrenal contribution to nicotinic and muscarinic modulation of bradykinin-induced plasma extravasation in the knee joint of the rat.

The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics

Miao FJ, Benowitz NL, Basbaum AI, Levine JD

Cardiotoxicity in the workplace.

Occupational medicine (Philadelphia, Pa.)

Benowitz NL

Cigarette smoking and nicotine addiction.

The Medical clinics of North America

Benowitz NL

Smokeless tobacco, cardiovascular risk factors, and nicotine and cotinine levels in professional baseball players.

American Journal of Public Health

Siegel D, Benowitz N, Ernster VL, Grady DG, Hauck WW

How toxic is cocaine?

Ciba Foundation symposium

Benowitz NL

Misclassification of smoking status by self-reported cigarette consumption.

The American review of respiratory disease

Pérez-Stable EJ, Marín G, Marín BV, Benowitz NL

National working conference on smoking and body weight. Task Force 2: Methods of assessment, strategies for research.

Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association

Henningfield JE, Obarzanek E, Benowitz NL, Hall SM, Klesges RC, Leischow S, Levin ED, Perkins KA, Spring B, Stitzer M

Nicotine elimination and tolerance in non-dependent cigarette smokers.

Psychopharmacology

Shiffman S, Zettler-Segal M, Kassel J, Paty J, Benowitz NL, O'Brien G

Basic and clinical psychopharmacology of nicotine.

Clinics in chest medicine

Le Houezec J, Benowitz NL

Nicotine and coronary heart disease.

Trends in cardiovascular medicine

Benowitz NL

Nicotine metabolism in humans.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Benowitz NL, Jacob P

Stable isotope method for studying transdermal drug absorption: the nicotine patch.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Benowitz NL, Chan K, Denaro CP, Jacob P

Disposition kinetics and metabolism of nicotine-1'-N-oxide in rabbits.

Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals

Duan MJ, Yu L, Savanapridi C, Jacob P, Benowitz NL

Elevated nicotine levels in cervical lavages from passive smokers.

American Journal of Public Health

Jones CJ, Schiffman MH, Kurman R, Jacob P, Benowitz NL

Stable isotope studies of nicotine kinetics and bioavailability.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Benowitz NL, Jacob P, Denaro C, Jenkins R

Effects of caffeine with repeated dosing.

European journal of clinical pharmacology

Denaro CP, Brown CR, Jacob P, Benowitz NL

Nicotine metabolism in nonsmokers.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Benowitz NL, Jacob P

Oral therapy for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A controlled trial of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole versus trimethoprim-dapsone.

The New England journal of medicine

Medina I, Mills J, Leoung G, Hopewell PC, Lee B, Modin G, Benowitz N, Wofsy CB

Apparent underreporting of cigarette consumption among Mexican American smokers.

American Journal of Public Health

Pérez-Stable EJ, Marín BV, Marín G, Brody DJ, Benowitz NL

Dose-dependency of caffeine metabolism with repeated dosing.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Denaro CP, Brown CR, Wilson M, Jacob P, Benowitz NL

Intravenous nicotine replacement suppresses nicotine intake from cigarette smoking.

The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics

Benowitz NL, Jacob P

Cocaine.

Emergency medicine clinics of North America

Mueller PD, Benowitz NL, Olson KR

Smokeless tobacco use and health effects among baseball players.

JAMA

Ernster VL, Grady DG, Greene JC, Walsh M, Robertson P, Daniels TE, Benowitz N, Siegel D, Gerbert B, Hauck WW

Diagnosis and management of pheochromocytoma.

Hospital practice (Office ed.)

Benowitz NL

Effect of chronic caffeine administration on monoamine and monoamine metabolite concentrations in rat brain.

Neuropharmacology

Kirch DG, Taylor TR, Gerhardt GA, Benowitz NL, Stephen C, Wyatt RJ

Influence of race, tobacco use, and caffeine use on the relation between blood pressure and blood lead concentration.

American journal of epidemiology

Sharp DS, Benowitz NL, Osterloh JD, Becker CE, Smith AH, Syme SL

Nicotine exposure among nondependent smokers.

Archives of general psychiatry

Shiffman S, Fischer LB, Zettler-Segal M, Benowitz NL

Clinical pharmacology of caffeine.

Annual review of medicine

Benowitz NL

Cocaine smokers excrete a pyrolysis product, anhydroecgonine methyl ester.

Journal of toxicology. Clinical toxicology

Jacob P, Jones RT, Benowitz NL, Shulgin AT, Lewis ER, Elias-Baker BA

Pharmacoepidemiology of the effect of caffeine on blood pressure.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Sharp DS, Benowitz NL

Pheochromocytoma.

Advances in internal medicine

Benowitz NL

Caffeine and cigarette smoking: behavioral, cardiovascular, and metabolic interactions.

Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behavior

Brown CR, Benowitz NL

Poisoning due to class 1B antiarrhythmic drugs. Lignocaine, mexiletine and tocainide.

Medical toxicology and adverse drug experience

Denaro CP, Benowitz NL

Effects of passive smoking on theophylline clearance.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Matsunga SK, Plezia PM, Karol MD, Katz MD, Camilli AE, Benowitz NL

Toxicologic causes of acute abdominal disorders.

Emergency medicine clinics of North America

Mueller PD, Benowitz NL

Daily use of smokeless tobacco: systemic effects.

Annals of internal medicine

Benowitz NL, Jacob P, Yu L

Food and nicotine metabolism.

Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behavior

Lee BL, Jacob P, Jarvik ME, Benowitz NL

Health and public policy implications of the "low yield" cigarette.

The New England journal of medicine

Benowitz NL

Diabetic patients and hepatic drug metabolism.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Denaro C, Benowitz N

Persistent increase in caffeine concentrations in people who stop smoking.

BMJ (Clinical research ed.)

Benowitz NL, Hall SM, Modin G

Effects of nicotine gum and tobacco smoking on human avoidance responding.

Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behavior

Cherek DR, Bennett RH, Kelly TH, Steinberg JL, Benowitz NL

Changes in food intake and activity after quitting smoking.

Journal of consulting and clinical psychology

Hall SM, McGee R, Tunstall C, Duffy J, Benowitz N

Nicotine gum and theophylline metabolism.

Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie

Benowitz NL, Lee BL, Jacob P

Sodium intake from smokeless tobacco.

The New England journal of medicine

Benowitz NL

Nicotine absorption and cardiovascular effects with smokeless tobacco use: comparison with cigarettes and nicotine gum.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Benowitz NL, Porchet H, Sheiner L, Jacob P

Nicotine and smokeless tobacco.

CA: a cancer journal for clinicians

Benowitz NL

Cotinine in the serum, saliva, and urine of nonsmokers, passive smokers, and active smokers.

American Journal of Public Health

Wall MA, Johnson J, Jacob P, Benowitz NL

Elimination of cotinine from body fluids: implications for noninvasive measurement of tobacco smoke exposure.

American Journal of Public Health

Jarvis MJ, Russell MA, Benowitz NL, Feyerabend C

Changes in rate and pattern of caffeine metabolism after cigarette abstinence.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Brown CR, Jacob P, Wilson M, Benowitz NL

Disposition kinetics of nicotine and cotinine enantiomers in rabbits and beagle dogs.

Journal of pharmaceutical sciences

Jacob P, Benowitz NL, Copeland JR, Risner ME, Cone EJ

Pheochromocytoma--recent advances in diagnosis and treatment.

The Western journal of medicine

Benowitz NL

Recent studies of nicotine metabolism in humans.

Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behavior

Jacob P, Benowitz NL, Shulgin AT

Nicotine gum: chew rate, subjective effects and plasma nicotine.

Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behavior

Nemeth-Coslett R, Benowitz NL, Robinson N, Henningfield JE

Effects of the stereoisomers of nicotine and nornicotine on schedule-controlled responding and physiological parameters of dogs.

The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics

Risner ME, Cone EJ, Benowitz NL, Jacob P

Cardiovascular effects of smoking in patients with ischemic heart disease.

Chest

Myers MG, Benowitz NL, Dubbin JD, Haynes RB, Sole MJ

Pharmacodynamic model of tolerance: application to nicotine.

The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics

Porchet HC, Benowitz NL, Sheiner LB

Toxicity of nicotine: implications with regard to nicotine replacement therapy.

Progress in clinical and biological research

Benowitz NL

Identification and quantitative analysis of cotinine-N-oxide in human urine.

Journal of chromatography

Shulgin AT, Jacob P, Benowitz NL, Lau D

Brain phenobarbital uptake during prolonged status epilepticus.

Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism

Simon RP, Copeland JR, Benowitz NL, Jacob P, Bronstein J

Apparent tolerance to the acute effect of nicotine results in part from distribution kinetics.

The Journal of clinical investigation

Porchet HC, Benowitz NL, Sheiner LB, Copeland JR

Electrophysiologic effects of cigarette smoking in patients with and without chronic beta-blocker therapy.

The American journal of cardiology

Peters RW, Benowitz NL, Valenti S, Modin G, Fisher ML

Nicotine gum and behavioral treatment: a placebo controlled trial.

Journal of consulting and clinical psychology

Hall SM, Tunstall CD, Ginsberg D, Benowitz NL, Jones RT

The effect of cigarette smoking on penile erection.

The Journal of urology

Juenemann KP, Lue TF, Luo JA, Benowitz NL, Abozeid M, Tanagho EA

Determination of benzoylecgonine and cocaine in biologic fluids by automated gas chromatography.

Journal of chromatography

Jacob P, Elias-Baker BA, Jones RT, Benowitz NL

Prolonged absorption with development of tolerance to toxic effects after cutaneous exposure to nicotine.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Benowitz NL, Lake T, Keller KH, Lee BL

Cigarette abstinence, nicotine gum, and theophylline disposition.

Annals of internal medicine

Lee BL, Benowitz NL, Jacob P

Determinants of nicotine intake while chewing nicotine polacrilex gum.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Benowitz NL, Jacob P, Savanapridi C

Influence of tobacco abstinence on the disposition kinetics and effects of nicotine.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Lee BL, Benowitz NL, Jacob P

Mouth versus deep airways absorption of nicotine in cigarette smokers.

Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behavior

Gori GB, Benowitz NL, Lynch CJ

Influence of smoking fewer cigarettes on exposure to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide.

The New England journal of medicine

Benowitz NL, Jacob P, Kozlowski LT, Yu L

Hyperthermia associated with drug intoxication.

Critical care medicine

Rosenberg J, Pentel P, Pond S, Benowitz N, Olson K

Additive cardiovascular effects of nicotine and ethanol.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Benowitz NL, Jones RT, Jacob P

Tricyclic antidepressant poisoning. Management of arrhythmias.

Medical toxicology

Pentel PR, Benowitz NL

Status epilepticus: divergence of sympathetic activity and cardiovascular response.

Annals of neurology

Benowitz NL, Simon RP, Copeland JR

Clinical pharmacology of nicotine.

Annual review of medicine

Benowitz NL

Nicotine and smoking relapse.

Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association

Pomerleau OF, Bell CS, Benowitz NL, Best JA, Glassman A, Russell M, Russell P, Schneider NG

Influence of the blood-brain pH gradient on brain phenobarbital uptake during status epilepticus.

The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics

Simon RP, Benowitz N, Hedlund R, Copeland J

Theophylline overdose: acute single ingestion versus chronic repeated overmedication.

The American journal of emergency medicine

Olson KR, Benowitz NL, Woo OF, Pond SM

Nicotine renal excretion rate influences nicotine intake during cigarette smoking.

The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics

Benowitz NL, Jacob P

Atrioventricular conduction block caused by phenylpropanolamine.

JAMA

Woo OF, Benowitz NL, Bialy FW, Wengert JW

Propranolol antagonism of phenylpropanolamine-induced hypertension.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Pentel PR, Asinger RW, Benowitz NL

Altered methadone pharmacokinetics in methadone-maintained pregnant women.

The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics

Pond SM, Kreek MJ, Tong TG, Raghunath J, Benowitz NL

Nicotine gum and behavioral treatment in smoking cessation.

Journal of consulting and clinical psychology

Hall SM, Tunstall C, Rugg D, Jones RT, Benowitz N

Trazodone-oral cocaine interactions.

Archives of general psychiatry

Rowbotham MC, Jones RT, Benowitz NL, Jacob P

Environmental and drug-induced hyperthermia. Pathophysiology, recognition, and management.

Emergency medicine clinics of North America

Olson KR, Benowitz NL

Ion-pair extraction of thiocyanate from plasma and its gas chromatographic determination using on-column alkylation.

Analytical chemistry

Jacob P, Savanapridi C, Yu L, Wilson M, Shulgin AT, Benowitz NL, Elias-Baker BA, Hall SM, Herning RI, Jones RT

Nicotine and carbon monoxide intake from high- and low-yield cigarettes.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Benowitz NL, Jacob P

Two-year efficacy and safety of rapid smoking therapy in patients with cardiac and pulmonary disease.

Journal of consulting and clinical psychology

Hall RG, Sachs DP, Hall SM, Benowitz NL

Efficacy and mechanism of action of sodium bicarbonate in the treatment of desipramine toxicity in rats.

The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics

Pentel P, Benowitz N

Influence of nicotine on cardiovascular and hormonal effects of cigarette smoking.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Benowitz NL, Kuyt F, Jacob P

Antihypertensive therapy with diltiazem and comparison with hydrochlorothiazide.

The American journal of cardiology

Inouye IK, Massie BM, Benowitz N, Simpson P, Loge D

Blood cotinine levels as indicators of smoking treatment outcome.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Hall SM, Herning RI, Jones RT, Benowitz NL, Jacob P

Daily intake of nicotine during cigarette smoking.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Benowitz NL, Jacob P

Determination of cocaine in plasma by automated gas chromatography.

Journal of chromatography

Jacob P, Elias-Baker BA, Jones RT, Benowitz NL

Changes in plasma catecholamines after tonic-clonic seizures.

Neurology

Simon RP, Aminoff MJ, Benowitz NL

Monotherapy in mild to moderate hypertension: comparison of hydrochlorothiazide, propranolol and prazosin.

The American journal of cardiology

Inouye I, Massie B, Benowitz N, Simpson P, Loge D, Topic N

Benefit of hemoperfusion in acute theophylline intoxication.

Journal of toxicology. Clinical toxicology

Woo OF, Pond SM, Benowitz NL, Olson KR

Relationship of duration of analgesia to opioid pharmacokinetic variables.

Brain research

Levine J, Gordon NC, Poole T, Benowitz N

(--)-alpha-Acetylmethadol effects on alcohol and diazepam use, sexual function and cardiac function.

Drug and alcohol dependence

Hargreaves WA, Tyler J, Weinberg JA, Sorensen JL, Benowitz N

Cotinine disposition and effects.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Benowitz NL, Kuyt F, Jacob P, Jones RT, Osman AL

Management of cocaine poisoning.

Annals of emergency medicine

Olson K, Benowitz NL, Pentel P

Normotensive pheochromocytoma. Pharmacologic, paraneoplastic and anesthetic considerations.

The Western journal of medicine

Kirby BD, Ham J, Fairley HB, Benowitz N, Schambelan M

Smokers of low-yield cigarettes do not consume less nicotine.

The New England journal of medicine

Benowitz NL, Hall SM, Herning RI, Jacob P, Jones RT, Osman AL

Treatment of theophylline overdose.

JAMA

Olson KR, Pond SM, Benowitz NL, Becker CE

Passive absorption of nicotine in airline flight attendants.

The New England journal of medicine

Foliart D, Benowitz NL, Becker CE

Late complications of tricyclic antidepressant overdose.

The Western journal of medicine

Pentel P, Olson KR, Becker CE, Benowitz N

How a cigarette is smoked determines blood nicotine levels.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Herning RI, Jones RT, Benowitz NL, Mines AH

Circadian blood nicotine concentrations during cigarette smoking.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Benowitz NL, Kuyt F, Jacob P

Massive catecholamine release from caffeine poisoning.

JAMA

Benowitz NL, Osterloh J, Goldschlager N, Kaysen G, Pond S, Forhan S

Interindividual variability in the metabolism and cardiovascular effects of nicotine in man.

The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics

Benowitz NL, Jacob P, Jones RT, Rosenberg J

Lack of effect of diazepam on methadone metabolism in methadone-maintained addicts.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Pond SM, Tong TG, Benowitz NL, Jacob P, Rigod J

Acute vasodilator therapy increases renal clearance of digoxin in patients with congestive heart failure.

Circulation

Cogan JJ, Humphreys MH, Carlson CJ, Benowitz NL, Rapaport E

Clinical relevance of cannabis tolerance and dependence.

Journal of clinical pharmacology

Jones RT, Benowitz NL, Herning RI

Plasma nicotine and cotinine concentrations in habitual smokeless tobacco users.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Gritz ER, Baer-Weiss V, Benowitz NL, Van Vunakis H, Jarvik ME

Presystemic metabolism of meperidine to normeperidine in normal and cirrhotic subjects.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Pond SM, Tong T, Benowitz NL, Jacob P, Rigod J

Pharmacokinetics of drug overdose.

Clinical pharmacokinetics

Rosenberg J, Benowitz NL, Pond S

Phenytoin-induced methadone withdrawal.

Annals of internal medicine

Tong TG, Pond SM, Kreek MJ, Jaffery NF, Benowitz NL

The cardiovascular and autonomic effects of repeated administration of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol to rhesus monkeys.

The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics

Fredericks AB, Benowitz NL, Savanapridi CY

Disposition kinetics and effects of intravenous nicotine.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Rosenberg J, Benowitz NL, Jacob P, Wilson KM

Enhanced bioavailability of pethidine and pentazocine in patients with cirrhosis of the liver.

Australian and New Zealand journal of medicine

Pond SM, Tong T, Benowitz NL, Jacob P

Methadone-disulfiram interaction during methadone maintenance.

Journal of clinical pharmacology

Tong TG, Benowitz NL, Kreek MJ

Metabolic and psychophysiologic studies of cannabidiol-hexobarbital interaction.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Benowitz NL, Nguyen TL, Jones RT, Herning RI, Bachman J

Dihydroergotamine treatment for orthostatic hypotension from Vacor rodenticide.

Annals of internal medicine

Benowitz NL, Byrd R, Schambelan M, Rosenberg J, Roizen MF

Resin hemoperfusion for ethchlorvynol.

Annals of internal medicine

Benowitz NL, Rosenberg J, Pond S

Resin hemoperfusion in ethychlorvynol overdose.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Benowitz N, Abolin C, Tozer T, Rosenberg J, Rogers W, Pond S, Schoenfeld P, Humphreys M

Pharmacokinetics of haemoperfusion for drug overdose.

Clinical pharmacokinetics

Pond S, Rosenberg J, Benowitz NL, Takki S

Effect of disulfiram on cognition, subjective response, and cortical-event-related potentials in nonalcoholic subjects.

Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research

Peeke SC, Prael AR, Herning RI, Rogers W, Benowitz NL, Jones RT

Diazepam kinetics in acute alcohol withdrawal.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Pond SM, Phillips M, Benowitz NL, Galinsky RE, Tong TG, Becker CE

Cardiovascular effects of intravenous delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol: autonomic nervous mechanisms.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Benowitz NL, Rosenberg J, Rogers W, Bachman J, Jones RT

Effect of disulfiram on adrenergic function.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Rogers WK, Benowitz NL, Wilson KM, Abbott JA

Dissociation of autonomic and cognitive effects of THC in man.

Psychopharmacology

Bachman JA, Benowitz NL, Herning RI, Jones RT

Peritoneal clearance and total body elimination of vancomycin during chronic intermittent peritoneal dialysis.

Clinical nephrology

Ayus JC, Eneas JF, Tong TG, Benowitz NL, Schoenfeld PY, Hadley KL, Becker CE, Humphreys MH

Cardiopulmonary catastrophes in drug-overdosed patients.

The Medical clinics of North America

Benowitz NL, Rosenberg J, Becker CE

Hypertensive emergencies.

The Medical clinics of North America

Becker CE, Benowitz NL

Clinical pharmacokinetics of lignocaine.

Clinical pharmacokinetics

Benowitz NL, Meister W

Pharmacokinetics in patients with cardiac failure.

Clinical pharmacokinetics

Benowitz NL, Meister W

Phytohemagglutinin-induced lymphocyte transformation in humans receiving delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol.

Science (New York, N.Y.)

Lau RJ, Tubergen DG, Barr M, Domino EF, Benowitz N, Jones RT

Gestational differences in lidocaine toxicity in the fetal lamb.

Anesthesiology

Teramo K, Benowitz N, Heymann MA, Rudolph AM

Clinical studies of cannabis tolerance and dependence.

Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

Jones RT, Benowitz N, Bachman J

Phencyclidine poisoning.

JAMA

Tong TG, Benowitz NL, Becker CE, Forni PJ, Boerner U

Cardiovascular effects of prolonged delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol ingestion.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Benowitz NL, Jones RT

Letter: "Post hoc" and hypoprothrombinemia.

Annals of internal medicine

Galinsky RE, Forni PJ, McGuire GG, Tong TG, Benowitz N, Becker CE

Lidocaine disposition kinetics in monkey and man. I. Prediction by a perfusion model.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Benowitz N, Forsyth FP, Melmon KL, Rowland M

Lidocaine disposition kinetics in monkey and man. II. Effects of hemorrhage and sympathomimetic drug administration.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Benowitz N, Forsyth RP, Melmon KL, Rowland M

Effects of lidocaine on heart rate, blood pressure, and electrocorticogram in fetal sheep.

American journal of obstetrics and gynecology

Teramo K, Benowitz N, Heymann MA, Kahanpää K, Siimes A, Rudolph AM

Electrophysiologic effects of procaine amide in patients with intraventricular conduction delay.

Circulation

Scheinman MM, Weiss AN, Shafton E, Benowitz N, Rowland M

Determination of lidocaine in blood and tissues.

Anesthesiology

Benowitz N, Rowland M

Calcium binding to phosphoprotein in estrogenized rooster plasma studied by density-gradient centrifugation.

Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine (New York, N.Y.)

Benowitz NL, Terepka AR