Secondhand Smoke

FLOW Cohort Study

Paul Blanc, MD

The major goal of the project in this center award is to assess secondhand smoke exposure effects longitudinally among an older cohort with COPD. In the FLOW cohort study, we aim to elucidate how SHS exposure adversely affects patients with COPD. Specifically, we will delineate the longitudinal impact of SHS exposure on pulmonary function decline among adults with COPD. The project will also evaluate the prospective impact of SHS exposure on the risk of functional limitation and disability in COPD.

16 Cities Study

Research tobacco industry documents and analyze original research database related to the industry’s “16 Cities Study” for evidence that the reported results were manipulated to support the tobacco industry’s opposition to smoke-free workplace and public places ordinances and laws.

Acute Effects of Secondhand Smoke Exposure in the Upper and Lower Respiratory Tract

John Balmes, MD

Using a controlled exposure system, we are studying the effects of SHS on the upper and lower airways in healthy subjects and subjects with allergic rhinitis or asthma. We will also be studying the effects of 4 consecutive days of SHS exposure.

Cardiovascular Health Effects of Emerging Heat-Not-Burn Tobacco Products (2.0)

Matthew Springer, PhD

Heat-not-burn (HNB) products, which heat a mixture of tobacco and other compounds to temperatures below those at which combustion occurs, deliver an inhalable aerosol containing nicotine and other chemicals. Although previous attempts by the tobacco industry to introduce such products have been largely unsuccessful, Philip Morris International’s iQOS is successfully being test marketed in several countries. In addition, Philip Morris Products S.A. has submitted modified risk tobacco product applications to the FDA to permit marketing iQOS in the United States.

CEASE California

Jyothi Marbin, MD

 "CEASE California": The project disseminates and evaluates the CEASE California program (Clinical Effort Against Secondhand Smoke Exposure). CEASE is a clinic intervention for pediatric offices to screen for secondhand smoke exposure (SHSE) in patients, and help parents quit by offering NRT and a referral to the CA Smokers Helpline. This training intervention is focused on busy clinics serving low income populations.

Chronic Effects of Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure on Lung Function of Flight Attendants

Mehrdad Arjomandi, MD

This is an observational study to determine the long-term respiratory effects of secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) in pre-smoking ban flight attendants via study of lung function and radiographic evidence of emphysema, and their association with estimates of cabin SHS exposure.

Core D: Biomarker Core (2.0)

Neal Benowitz, MD

Exposure assessment is necessary for evaluating the health effects of tobacco use.

Designing a Quit Smoking Tool in Safety Net Clinics

Jyothi Marbin, MD

Designing a Quit Smoking Tool in Safety Net Clinics: Developing and evaluating the efficacy of enhanced EHR screening and tobacco cessation intervention tools for safety net clinics in Alameda County. In partnership with the Lifelong Medical Care clinics in Alameda county, which serve Alameda County's neediest residents, we are developing, implementing, and evaluating changes to the NextGen electronic health record around tobacco cessation.

Economic Burden of Secondhand Smoke

Hai-Yen Sung, PhD

The project examines the exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) among U.S. adults and children, and quantifies the economic burden of the SHS exposure in terms of healthcare costs and lost productivity from lost time and premature mortality.  It also assesses the impact of exposure to SHS on two particularly vulnerable populations – African Americans and Hispanics.  

Effect of Aged Sidestream Cigarette Smoke Exposure on Humans

Suzaynn Schick, PhD

Professor Suzaynn Schick is recruiting healthy nonsmokers who are not exposed to SHS in daily life to study the effects of acute exposure to SHS on nasal congestion.

Effects of Secondhand Smoke from Marijuana on Vascular Function

Matthew Springer, PhD
Humans and rats exposed to even a few minutes of secondhand smoke from tobacco experience a drop in vascular endothelial function (the ability of their arteries to enlarge to pass more blood when needed by the tissues). We have shown that rats exposed to diluted smoke from the burning tips of marijuana cigarettes experience a similar drop in function, although in the case of marijuana, the impairment is longer lasting. This occurs even if the marijuana does not contain cannabinoids; it is an effect of the smoke itself.

Environmental Effects of Marijuana Use

Suzaynn Schick, PhD

As the use and possession of marijuana become increasingly legal in California, there are more public events and places where people are using marijuana.  Very little is known about the chemistry and toxicity of marijuana smoke and the emissions from marijuana e-cigarettes and the vaporization and dabbing of marijuana.  To begin to study this, we are collecting air samples at public events in the Bay Area at which marijuana and tobacco are used.  We use tobacco as a control, because much more is known about it.  The places and events w

Estimating the Environmental Burden in Two Orphan Lung Diseases

Paul Blanc, MD

The major goals of this project are to study the role of environmental factors in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and extrinsic alveolitis. The population attributable fraction (PAF) estimates the amount of a disease that is due to a specific factor, quantifying the burden of disease that would be prevented if that factor was eliminated.

Evaluating a City's Smokefree Policy in Multi-Unit Housing

Valerie Yerger, MA, ND

This project will evaluate what community stakeholders know about a new citywide ordinance that bans smoking in multi-unit housing (MUH) in Richmond, California. In this in-depth case study, we will use focus groups and one-on-one interviews to identify and document successes and challenges of implementing a smoke-free policy in multi-unit housing.

Evaluation of a Smoke-Free Policy in Permanent Supportive Housing

Maya Vijayaraghavan, MD, MAS

In partnership with one of the largest permanent supportive housing programs for homeless and low-income adults with special needs in San Diego County, we will conduct a pre- and post-policy evaluation a smoke-free policy that includes restrictions on smoking in indoor and shared outdoor areas. The study will examine tobacco use behaviors, exposure to secondhand smoke, knowledge of, adherence to, and attitudes toward the smoke-free policy among the clientele of 4 permanent supportive housing programs.

Formation and Release of Thirdhand Smoke Compounds from Sorbed Sidestream Cigarette Smoke

Suzaynn Schick, PhD

We are analyzing the release of chemicals from sorbed sidestream smoke on surfaces and furnishings.  This is commonly known as thirdhand smoke (THS) and so far we know that the semivolatile compounds from SHS stick to surfaces and can remain for hours, days and weeks.  This is why skin, clothing and entire rooms smell of smoke long after the cigarettes are put out.   

Formation of the Nitrosamine NNK in Aging Sidestream Cigarette Smoke

Suzaynn Schick, PhD

We have collected equal quantities of fresh and aged sidestream cigarette smoke particulates and are quantifying the carcinogenic tobacco specific N-nitrosamines NNK, NNN and NNA.  

Genes-Environments & Admixture in Latino Asthmatics (GALA) & Study of African Americans, Asthma, Genes & Environments (SAGE)

Esteban G. Burchard, MD, MPH

We are studying gene-environment interactions in racially mixed (admixed) populations. We are also studying the effects of air pollution and second hand smoke on children.

Health Effects of Secondhand Smoke

Stanton Glantz, PhD

Secondhand smoke has many effects on the body. This project focuses on the short-term effects on the heart, blood and blood vessels. Even a few minutes' worth of exposure is dangerous.  This research concentrates on estimating the size of these effects and also understanding the underlying biology. 

Impact of Cigarette Smoke Exposure on Acute Lung Injury

Carolyn Calfee, MD, MAS

We are studying the effects of both active smoking and secondhand smoke exposure on susceptibility to acute lung injury, a major cause of respiratory failure among critically ill patients.

Impact of SHS Exposure on Adults with COPD and other Airway Diseases

John Balmes, MD, Paul Blanc, MD

This project examines the impact of secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure on the risk of developing Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).

Lung Function Effects of SHS in Flight Attendants

Warren Gold, MD

Current research, as a member of the FAMRI (Flight Attendant Medical Research Institute) Center of Excellence, with Principal Investigator Rita Redberg, examines the long-term effects of second hand cigarette smoke on flight attendants. Pilot studies have shown that 40% of nonsmoking flight attendants who worked on commercial airlines prior to the ban on cigarette smoking developed diffusion defects. These diffusion defects are associated with airway obstruction and air trapping.

Online Training for Pediatricians to Help Parents Quit Smoking

Jyothi Marbin, MD

Online Training for Pediatricians to Help Parents Quit Smoking: This project developed on online training module for pediatricians based on the CEASE model around reducing SHSE. The online module is a more cost effective way to train clinics interested in the CEASE intervention. We are currently evaluating the differences in efficacy and cost between in-person and online trainings for pediatricians.

Rapid Vascular Effects of Secondhand Smoke

Matthew Springer, PhD

We are assessing the dose- and time-response of vascular functional impairment caused by exposure to second hand smoke at very low levels and short exposure times in rats.  

Relationship Between Cannabis Use and Active and Passive Tobacco Smoking in Adolescents

Neal Benowitz, MD
This project is exploring the relationship between cannabis use and active and passive smoking in adolescents. This work includes analysis of the impact of blunt use (marijuana in a cigar wrap) on nicotine exposure.

Secondhand Smoke Exposure Reduction in Hospitalized Children

Jyothi Marbin, MD

Secondhand Smoke Exposure Reduction in hospitalized children: This project is being done in conjunction with UCSF Benioff Children's Hospitals in Oakland and San Francisco. We are seeking to create a multidisciplinary, systematic approach to screening for and reducing secondhand smoke exposure in hospitalized children. We are helping to develop universal screening for SHSE in all admitted children, and then working with physicians, respiratory therapists, pharmacy and nurses to provide appropriate counseling and medication to caregivers.

Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Its Detrimental Cardiopulmonary Effects

Rita Redberg, MD, MS

The aim of this research project is to develop a noninvasive index of cardiopulmonary impairment that reflects the presence and severity of residual detrimental effects resulting from occupationally encountered SHS exposure among flight attendants.