Secondhand Smoke

A New Paradigm of Breast Cancer Causation and Prevention

Robert Hiatt, MD
This work takes a transdisciplinary approach to develop a model for breast cancer causation and etiology that takes into account multiple disciplinary perspectives from the biologic to the sociologic in order to provide common ground for understanding and to point up gaps in knowledge about breast cancer etiology that require further investigation. 

Acute Effects of Secondhand Smoke Exposure in the Upper and Lower Respiratory Tract

John Balmes, MD

Using a controlled exposure system, we are studying the effects of SHS on the upper and lower airways in healthy subjects and subjects with allergic rhinitis or asthma. We will also be studying the effects of 4 consecutive days of SHS exposure.

Assessment of cardiovascular effects of chronic marijuana smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke in humans

Matt Springer, PhD

We have shown in rats that acute exposure to mainstream smoke or secondhand smoke from marijuana impairs vascular endothelial function, and it has been reported by others that human tobacco smokers and people exposed frequently to secondhand smoke exhibit chronic endothelial dysfunction.  We therefore plan to recruit groups of people who are regular tobacco or marijuana smokers, or marijuana leaf vaporizer users, or people exposed frequently to marijuana secondhand smoke, to determine if they exhibit impaired endothelial function on multiple levels.

Cardiovascular Health Effects of Emerging Heat-Not-Burn Tobacco Products (2.0)

Matt Springer, PhD

Heat-not-burn (HNB) products, which heat a mixture of tobacco and other compounds to temperatures below those at which combustion occurs, deliver an inhalable aerosol containing nicotine and other chemicals. Although previous attempts by the tobacco industry to introduce such products have been largely unsuccessful, Philip Morris International’s iQOS is successfully being test marketed in several countries. In addition, Philip Morris Products S.A. has submitted modified risk tobacco product applications to the FDA to permit marketing iQOS in the United States.

CEASE California

Jyothi Marbin, MD

 "CEASE California": The project disseminates and evaluates the CEASE California program (Clinical Effort Against Secondhand Smoke Exposure). CEASE is a clinic intervention for pediatric offices to screen for secondhand smoke exposure (SHSE) in patients, and help parents quit by offering NRT and a referral to the CA Smokers Helpline. This training intervention is focused on busy clinics serving low income populations.

Chronic Effects of Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure on Lung Function of Flight Attendants

Mehrdad Arjomandi, MD

This is an observational study to determine the long-term respiratory effects of secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) in pre-smoking ban flight attendants via study of lung function and radiographic evidence of emphysema, and their association with estimates of cabin SHS exposure.

Core D: Biomarker Core (2.0)

Neal Benowitz, MD

Exposure assessment is necessary for evaluating the health effects of tobacco use.

Denormalizing Smoking in the Great Outdoors in California and throughout the Pacific Rim

Jeremiah Mock, MSc, PhD

Smoking and vaping in the outdoors are considered to be normal and acceptable in California and the Pacific Rim region. However, tobacco use in the outdoors results in harmful levels of secondhand smoke exposure, toxic tobacco, vaping and cannabis product waste, and fire hazards. This study identifies factors driving the cultural norm and pervasive notion that it is socially acceptable for smokers to smoke in the outdoors by analyzing past and current tobacco industry advertising, social media and political strategies in California, Thailand and Japan.

Designing a Quit Smoking Tool in Safety Net Clinics

Jyothi Marbin, MD

Designing a Quit Smoking Tool in Safety Net Clinics: Developing and evaluating the efficacy of enhanced EHR screening and tobacco cessation intervention tools for safety net clinics in Alameda County. In partnership with the Lifelong Medical Care clinics in Alameda county, which serve Alameda County's neediest residents, we are developing, implementing, and evaluating changes to the NextGen electronic health record around tobacco cessation.

Effect of Aged Sidestream Cigarette Smoke Exposure on Humans

Suzaynn Schick, PhD

Professor Suzaynn Schick is recruiting healthy nonsmokers who are not exposed to SHS in daily life to study the effects of acute exposure to SHS on nasal congestion.

Environmental Contamination from Tobacco, Vaping and Cannabis Waste

Jeremiah Mock, MSc, PhD

This sentinel surveillance garbology study documents environmental contamination from e-cigarette product waste, combustible tobacco product waste, and cannabis product waste at public high schools with in Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, and San Francisco counties. The study shows that e-cigarette waste and combustible tobacco product waste contaminate the Bay Area high schools, confirming use of these products by high school students. Cannabis product waste represents an emerging issue.

Environmental Effects of Marijuana Use

Suzaynn Schick, PhD

My lab studies the chemistry and toxicity of smoke, with a focus on tobacco and cannabis smoke. As part of the UCSF Human Exposure Laboratory, we perform controlled exposure studies that test the immediate health effects of cigarette smoke exposure in human beings.  We have shown that breathing secondhand cigarette smoke causes rapid increases in cardiovascular disease risk and in nasal congestion.  Our research on the chemistry and toxicity of cigarette smoke has helped define a new health risk from smoking: thirdhand cigarette smoke.

Evaluation of a Smoke-Free Policy in Permanent Supportive Housing

Maya Vijayaraghavan, MD, MAS

In partnership with one of the largest permanent supportive housing programs for homeless and low-income adults with special needs in San Diego County, we will conduct a pre- and post-policy evaluation a smoke-free policy that includes restrictions on smoking in indoor and shared outdoor areas. The study will examine tobacco use behaviors, exposure to secondhand smoke, knowledge of, adherence to, and attitudes toward the smoke-free policy among the clientele of 4 permanent supportive housing programs.

Evaluation of Potential Harmful Effects Marijuana Loose Leaf Vaporizers

Matt Springer, PhD

We have demonstrated that secondhand smoke from marijuana impairs vascular endothelial function in rats, an effect also caused by secondhand smoke from tobacco, but the marijuana effect appears to last longer.  This occurs even if the smoke is from marijuana lacking cannabinoids, indicating that the effect is caused by the smoke itself and not the cannabinoids. Therefore, we are exploring whether or not this effect can be avoided by use of loose leaf vaporizers, which heat marijuana to below combustion temperatures.

Formation and Release of Thirdhand Smoke Compounds from Sorbed Sidestream Cigarette Smoke

Suzaynn Schick, PhD

We are analyzing the release of chemicals from sorbed sidestream smoke on surfaces and furnishings.  This is commonly known as thirdhand smoke (THS) and so far we know that the semivolatile compounds from SHS stick to surfaces and can remain for hours, days and weeks.  This is why skin, clothing and entire rooms smell of smoke long after the cigarettes are put out.   

Formation of the Nitrosamine NNK in Aging Sidestream Cigarette Smoke

Suzaynn Schick, PhD

We have collected equal quantities of fresh and aged sidestream cigarette smoke particulates and are quantifying the carcinogenic tobacco specific N-nitrosamines NNK, NNN and NNA.  

Genes-Environments & Admixture in Latino Asthmatics (GALA) & Study of African Americans, Asthma, Genes & Environments (SAGE)

Esteban G. Burchard, MD, MPH

We are studying gene-environment interactions in racially mixed (admixed) populations. We are also studying the effects of air pollution and second hand smoke on children.

Health Effects of Secondhand Smoke

Secondhand smoke has many effects on the body. This project focuses on the short-term effects on the heart, blood and blood vessels. Even a few minutes' worth of exposure is dangerous.  This research concentrates on estimating the size of these effects and also understanding the underlying biology. 

Impact of Cigarette Smoke Exposure on Acute Lung Injury

Carolyn Calfee, MD

We are studying the effects of both active smoking and secondhand smoke exposure on susceptibility to acute lung injury, a major cause of respiratory failure among critically ill patients.

Impact of SHS Exposure on Adults with COPD and other Airway Diseases

John Balmes, MD

This project examines the impact of secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure on the risk of developing Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).

Investigation of rat models for the study of adverse cardiac effects of marijuana

Matt Springer, PhD

We have a pilot grant to determine the utility of rat models to study how marijuana use affects cardiac function, and the survival of cardiac tissue after a heart attack.

Lung Function Effects of SHS in Flight Attendants

Warren Gold, MD

Current research, as a member of the FAMRI (Flight Attendant Medical Research Institute) Center of Excellence, with Principal Investigator Rita Redberg, examines the long-term effects of second hand cigarette smoke on flight attendants. Pilot studies have shown that 40% of nonsmoking flight attendants who worked on commercial airlines prior to the ban on cigarette smoking developed diffusion defects. These diffusion defects are associated with airway obstruction and air trapping.

Online Training for Pediatricians to Help Parents Quit Smoking

Jyothi Marbin, MD

Online Training for Pediatricians to Help Parents Quit Smoking: This project developed on online training module for pediatricians based on the CEASE model around reducing SHSE. The online module is a more cost effective way to train clinics interested in the CEASE intervention. We are currently evaluating the differences in efficacy and cost between in-person and online trainings for pediatricians.

Rapid Vascular Effects of Secondhand Smoke

Matt Springer, PhD

We are assessing the dose- and time-response of vascular functional impairment caused by exposure to second hand smoke at very low levels and short exposure times in rats.  

Relationship Between Cannabis Use and Active and Passive Tobacco Smoking in Adolescents

Neal Benowitz, MD
This project is exploring the relationship between cannabis use and active and passive smoking in adolescents. This work includes analysis of the impact of blunt use (marijuana in a cigar wrap) on nicotine exposure.

Secondhand Smoke Exposure Reduction in Hospitalized Children

Jyothi Marbin, MD

Secondhand Smoke Exposure Reduction in hospitalized children: This project is being done in conjunction with UCSF Benioff Children's Hospitals in Oakland and San Francisco. We are seeking to create a multidisciplinary, systematic approach to screening for and reducing secondhand smoke exposure in hospitalized children. We are helping to develop universal screening for SHSE in all admitted children, and then working with physicians, respiratory therapists, pharmacy and nurses to provide appropriate counseling and medication to caregivers.

Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Its Detrimental Cardiopulmonary Effects

Rita Redberg, MD, MS

The aim of this research project is to develop a noninvasive index of cardiopulmonary impairment that reflects the presence and severity of residual detrimental effects resulting from occupationally encountered SHS exposure among flight attendants.  

Validation of NIDA research marijuana for use in cardiovascular health studies

Matt Springer, PhD

Due to the continued restrictions on US cannabis researchers to work only on DEA-approved research marijuana that does not completely reflect most "real world" marijuana being used, we have arranged to have NIDA provide us with small batches of research marijuana that more accurately reflect real-world chemical composition and cannabinoid levels.  We plan to characterize the cannabinoid and terpene profiles of these batches and to compare their cardiovascular effects to those of standard research marijuana in rats.