Denormalizing Smoking in the Great Outdoors in California and throughout the Pacific Rim


  1. Jeremiah Mock, MSc, PhD
Research Fields: 
Marketing and Prevention
Policy and Politics
Secondhand Smoke

Smoking and vaping in the outdoors are considered to be normal and acceptable in California and the Pacific Rim region. However, tobacco use in the outdoors results in harmful levels of secondhand smoke exposure, toxic tobacco, vaping and cannabis product waste, and fire hazards. This study identifies factors driving the cultural norm and pervasive notion that it is socially acceptable for smokers to smoke in the outdoors by analyzing past and current tobacco industry advertising, social media and political strategies in California, Thailand and Japan. Findings from this research will contribute to informing policymaking on legislation and provide recommendations for developing effective enforcement to denormalize tobacco use in the outdoors in California and the Pacific Rim.